FAQ on Seeds

By | November 17, 2015
(Last Updated On: November 17, 2015)

Question : What are breeder, foundation and certified seeds ?

Breeder seed : Breeder seed is seed or vegetative propagating material directly controlled by the originating or sponsoring plant breeder of the breeding programme or institution and/ or seed whose production is personally supervised by a qualified plant breeder and which provides the source for the initial and recurring increase of foundation seed. Breeder seed shall be genetically so pure as to guarantee that in the subsequent generation i.e. certified foundation seed class shall confirm to the prescribed standards of genetic purity. The other quality factors of breeder seed such as physical purity, inert matter, germination etc. shall be indicated on the label on actual basis.

Certified Seed: Certified seed shall be the progeny of foundation seed and its production shall be so handled as to maintain specific genetic identity and purity according to the standards prescribed for the crop being certified. Certified seed may be the progeny of certified seed provided this reproduction does not exceed three generations beyond foundation seed stage-I

Question : What is hybrid seed?

The first generation resulting from crossing of two varieties or parents. Hybrid(certified) seed is the first generation resulting from the cross of two approved inbred lines or parents , one of which is male sterile.

Question : What is Labelled Seed?

The seeds of any crop varieties sold in the marked should be labeled as prescribed under Section 6 of the Seeds Act, 1966, such seeds are called Labelled Seed.

Question : What is process and procedure of certification of seeds?

  • receipt and scrutiny of application by state Seed Certification Agency;
  • verification of seed source, class and other requirements of the seed used for raising the seed crop;
  • field inspections to verify conformity to the prescribed field standards;
  • Supervision of post-harvest stages including processing and packaging;
  • Seed sampling and analysis, including genetic purity test and/or seed health test, if any, in order to verify conformity to the prescribed standards; and
  • Grant of certificate and certification tags, tagging and sealing.

Question : Which are the agencies authorised for certification of seeds?

Seed certification if voluntary in nature and anybody who is interested can undertake production of certified seed of varieties notified under Section 6 of the Seeds Act 1966. State Seed Certification Agencies are authorized to certify the seeds. At present there are 24 state Seed Certification Agencies in the country.

Question : Which are the agencies that can produce certified seeds?

Anybody willing to come forward to produce certified seed can produce certified seed. At present State Seeds Corporations, National Seeds Corporation, State Farm Corporation of India, State Departments of Agriculture, Private Companies, Cooperatives and individual farmers are producing certified seed.

Question : What is the position of breeder, foundation and certified seed in the country?

The details of production of breeder, foundation and certified seeds from 2005-06 to 2012-13 are as under :-

Production of Breeder, Foundation and Certified Seed

Type of SeedsUnit2005–062006-072007-082008-092009-102010-112011-122012-13
Breeder Seed productionMT686573829196944110604119211272712371
Foundation Seed productionMT74000796548525496274180817180640222681161700
Certified / Quality seed DistributionMT14050001481800194310025035002797200321359235362003285800

Question : what is Seed Replacement Rate?

Seed Replacement Rate is the percentage of area sown out of total area of crop planted in the season by using certified / quality seeds other than the farm saved seed.

Question : What are the present Seed Replacement Rate for different crops?

For the year 2011-12 Seed Replacement Rate for Wheat: 32.55% Paddy: 40.21%, Maize: 56.58% Jowar: 23.85%, Bajra: 60.40%, Gram: 19.35%, Urd: 34.41%, Moong: 30.29%, Arhar: 22.16%, Groundnut: 22.5%, Rapeseed and Mustard: 78.88%, Soybean: 52.75%, Sunflower: 32.47%, Jute: 42.11% for the country.

Question : What are the major schemes of Government of India in the Seed Sector?

  • Central Sector Scheme – ‘Development and Strengthening of Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Distribution of Quality Seeds’ since 2005-06 on an all India basis with an objective of the ongoing scheme is to ensure production and multiplication of high yielding certified/quality seeds of all crops in sufficient quantities and make the seeds available to farmers, including those in remote areas, not easily accessible by rail/road on time.
    Name of SchemeDevelopment and Strengthening of Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Distribution of Quality Seeds
    TypesCentral Sector
    Year of Commencement2005-06
    ObjectivesUp gradation of infrastructure facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds.
    Salient featuresTo develop and strengthen the seed infrastructure facilities relating to processing, storage, production and distribution of certified/quality seeds, quality control arrangement of seeds.

    To undertake measures for upgrading quality of farmer’s saved seed.

    To provide technical know-how to farmers in seed production.

    To provide assistance for boosting seed production in private sector.

    To establish and develop seed bank.

    To promote use of biotechnology in agriculture.

    To promote hybrid seeds .

    To make available seeds to the farmers during natural calamities like droughts, floods, disease outbreaks etc.

    To provide Transport Subsidy on movement of seeds for North Eastern States Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal and hilly areas of West Bengal to ensure timely availability of certified /quality seeds at reasonable price to the farmers in remote areas.

    To promote seed production for exports to augment income of farmers create employment opportunities and earn foreign exchange.

    To strengthen the Seed Quality Control Organizations i.e State Seed Certification Agencies and Seed Testing laboratories to regulate the quality of seed distributed to the farmers.

    To establish and strength the National Seed Research and Training Centre (NSRTC), Varanasi to impart training to people working in the seed sector.

    To provide Secretariat support to Central Seed Committee (CSC) and Central Seed Certification Board(CSCB).

    Structure of SchemeComponents of scheme are

    Transport Subsidy on Movement of Seeds

    Establishment and Maintenance of Seed Bank

    Quality Control Arrangement on Seeds – National Seeds Research and Training Centre (NSRTC),Varanasi (UP)

    Seed Village Programme

    Assistance for Creation of Infrastructure Facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds in Public Sector

    Assistance for Boosting Seed Production in Private Sector

    Assistance for Seed Export

    Assistance for Hybrid Seeds Production

    Use of Biotechnology in Agriculture

    Funding Pattern100% Assistance by Government of India.
    EligibilityAgriculture Department of the State Governments/Union Territory Administrations, State Seeds Corporations, State Seeds Certification Agencies, National Seeds Corporation, State Farm Corporation of India, Krishi Vigyan Kendras, State Agricultural Universities, ICAR, NCDC, Nationalized Banks Cooperatives, farmers and private sector.
    Area of OperationAll States and Union Territories in India
    Procedure to applyAs per detailed guidelines for each component of the scheme.
    BE Outlay year-wise during Eleventh Five Year Plan (Rs. in crores
    Person to be contactedJoint Secretary (Seeds), Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi.

    Director(Seeds), Department of Agriculture & Cooperation Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi.

  • Seed Village Programme.
    TitleCentral Sector Scheme on Seed Village Programme
    TypesCentral Sector
    Objectivesupgrade the quality of farmer saved seed which is about 60-65% of the total seed used for crop production programme
    Salient features(a) Financial assistance for distribution of foundation/certified seed at 50% cost of the seeds for production of certified/quality seed will be provided. The seeds of half an acre per farmer is only allowed..

    (b) To train the farmers on seed production and technology aspects training will be provided to the farmers for the seed crops grown in the seed villages @ Rs.15000/- for a group of 50-150 farmers.

    (c) To encourage farmers to develop storage capacity of appropriate quality assistance @ 33% subject to a maximum of Rs.3000/- for SC/ST farmers and @ 25% subject to maximum of Rs.2000/- for other farmers for procuring seeds storage bin of 20 qtl. capacity. Assistance @ 33% subject to maximum of Rs.1500/- to SC/ST farmers and @ 25% subject to maximum of Rs.1000/- for other farmers for making seeds storage bin of 10 qtls. capacity is available.

    Pattern of Assistance100% grants-in-aid
    Procedures to applyState Govt., implementing agencies furnish the proposal as per guidelines in the prescribed proforma after recommendation of State Govt. (for agencies other than State Deptt. of Agriculture) to Seed Division directly.
    Person to be contactedThe Joint Secretary, Seeds Division,Department Agriculture and Cooperation, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi.
    Implementation StatusState Department of Agriculture, State Agricultural University, State Seeds Certification Agencies, State Seeds Corporation, National Seeds Corporation (NSC) and State Farm Corporation of India (SFCI), Department of State Seeds Certification, One implementing agency identified for the area/ locality and is to be authorized by the State Govt. The implementing agency may be to identify the area of better seed production and a compact area approach needs to be followed under this Programme.
  • Creation of Seed Infrastructure Facilities (For public sector agencies only)  c) To encourage farmers to develop storage capacity of appropriate quality assistance @ 33% subject to a maximum of Rs.3000/- for SC/ST farmers and @ 25% subject to maximum of Rs.2000/- for other farmers for procuring seeds storage bin of 20 qtl. capacity. Assistance @ 33% subject to maximum of Rs.1500/- to SC/ST farmers and @ 25% subject to maximum of Rs.1000/- for other farmers for making seeds storage bin of 10 qtls. capacity is available.
    TitleCentral Sector Scheme on Creation of Seed Infrastructure Facilities.
    TypesCentral Sector
    ObjectivesTo create/strengthen infrastructure facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds.Financial assistance to implementing States / agencies are available for creating facilities for seed cleaning, drying, grading, processing, packing and seed storage.
    Salient featuresSeed Processing Plants : The assistance will be provided at the standard rate of Rs.22.25 lakhs per processing plant of 1000 MTs capacity(including construction of building and machineries/ equipments) and multiples thereof in proportion to the capacity.

    Seed Storage Godown : The assistance will be provided at the standard rate of Rs.25 lakhs per seed godown of 1000 MTs capacity and multiples thereof in proportion to the capacity.The implementing agency will have the flexibility to establish / strengthen seed processing plant or seed storage godowns of the required capacities / capacities as assessed / required by them.

    Pattern of Assistance100% grants-in-aid. The expenditure over and above will be borne by concerned implementing agency / State Govt. through their own sources. The land cost / registration charges if any for creating these seed infrastructure facilities is to be met by respective implementing agency.
    Procedures to applyConcerned implementing agencies furnish their proposal as per guideline in the prescribed proforma after recommendation of State Govt. (for the agencies other than State Department of Agriculture) to Seed Division..
    Person to be contactedThe Joint Secretary, Seeds Division,Department Agriculture and Cooperation, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi.
  • Transport subsidy on movement of seeds to northeastern states.
    TitleCentral Sector Scheme on Transport Subsidy for the movement of Seeds to the North-Eastern States, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal and Hill Areas of West Bengal.
    TypesCentral Sector
    ObjectivesTo ensure supply of seeds to the farmers in time at reasonable prices in the identified States.
    Salient featuresTo subsidize the cost of transportation of seeds required by the farmers in the North Eastern States including Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal and; Hill Areas of West Bengal so as to make seed available at reasonable rate as prevailing in other parts of the country.To make available seeds well in time before sowing season to the farmers in above areas.
    Pattern of Assistance(i) Reimbursement of 100% difference between rail and road transport charges for seeds moved from outside the state to indentified State Capital/District Head Quarter.

    (ii) Actual cost of transportation of seeds subject to maximum limit of Rs.60/quintal whichever is less is reimbursed for movement of certified seed within the state from state capital/district HQs of these States to sale outlets/sale counters.

    Procedures to applyState Governments/Public Sector agencies/ agencies identified by State Governments furnish the proposal based on the approved norms in the prescribed proforma.
    Person to be contactedThe Joint Secretary, Seeds Division,Department Agriculture and Cooperation,Krishi Bhawan,New Delhi.
    Date of Start/durationOriginal Scheme is in operation since 1986-87. However, the modified scheme is in operation from 1998-99.
    Implementation StatusOriginally this scheme was meant for North-Eastern States including Sikkim. However, from 1998-99, it has been extended to other States like H.P., J&K, uttaranchal and Hill areas of West Bengal.
    Additional informationScheme is applicable only for movement of certified seed of cereal, oilseed, pulses, fibre, vegetable excluding potato & spices.
  • Establishment and maintenance of Seed Bank.
    TitleCentral sector scheme for establishment & maintenance of seed bank
    TypesCentral Sector
    ObjectivesTo make available seeds for contingent situations and also develop infrastructure for seed storage.
    Salient featuresEstablishment of seed bank for maintenance of foundation and certified seeds of different crops to ensure timely availability of seeds to the farmers.

    To take care of the special requirement of seed at the time of natural calamity

    To create infrastructure facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds.

    Pattern of AssistanceProvide revolving funds for procurement of seeds ( 50 % cost of raw seed) for keeping in the seed bank.Reimbursement of maintenance cost of seed or various components like processing& packing , revalidation, transportation, storage, storage loss, insurance of seeds during storage and price differential for undistributed quantity of seeds as per norms fixed under the scheme.
    EligibilityNSC, SFCI , State seed corporations of various states and state seed certification agencies.
    Procedures to applyPhysical targets of seeds for each seed corporation are fixed based on which revolving funds provided. Maintenance cost of the seeds is also reimbursed based on the proposals received from seed corporations.
    Person to be contactedThe Joint Secretary,Seeds Division ,Department Agriculture and Cooperation, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi
    Date of Start/durationScheme is in operation since 1999-2000.
    Implementation StatusScheme is being implemented through NSC, SFCI and seed corporations of Andhra Pardesh, Assam,Orissa Gujrat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pardesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, U.P, Uttranchal , Maharashtra &West Bengal while the benefit of the scheme is available to the entire country.
    Additional informationSeed of about 20 crops of various varieties which are suitable for different agro-climatic zones of the country specially for meeting any contingent situation arising out of drought / flood situation are maintained in the seed Bank.Tables Showing quantity of seeds to be maintained by various seed corporations in the seed bank during 2012-2013 are annexed.
  • Implementation of PVP Legislation.
    TitleThe Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001
    TypesPPV&FR Authority is a statutory body established by the Central Government under section 3 of PPV&FR Act, 2001
    Objectives•To provide an effective system for protection of plant varieties and rights of farmers and plant breeders• To recognize the farmers in respect of their contribution made at conserving , improving and making available plant genetic resources for development of new plant varieties

    •To protect plant breeders’ rights to stimulate investment for R&D and develop new varieties

    •To facilitate the growth of seed industry to ensure production and availability of high quality seed/planting material.

    Salient features1.Registration of new, extant, farmers and Essentially Derived varieties.

    2.Protection of breeder’s, researchers rights farmers and community rights.

    3.Benefit sharing, compulsory licensing, compensation to farmers/ farming communities.

    Pattern of AssistanceNot Applicable.
    EligibilityAny person mentioned in section 16 of the PPV&FR Act, 2001 may apply for registration under the Act.
    Procedures to applyThe application form for registration has been specified in the Form I and Form II of the PPV&FR Regulations, 2006 and the Sixth Schedule of PPV&FR Rules, 2003. A farmer who is entitled for recognition and reward under section 39(1)(iii) of PPV&FR Act, 2001 can apply in accordance with the procedure laid down under the PPV&FR (Recognition and Reward from the Gene Fund) Rules, 2012. The farmers who are entitled for reward under Rule 70(2)(a) of PPV&FR Rules, 2003 can apply in the form specified by the Authority..
    Person to be contactedRegistrar, Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Authority, NASC Complex, DPS Marg, New Delhi-110012
    Date of Start/durationSections 2 to 13 and Sections 95 to 97 of PPV&FR Act, 2001 with effect from 11.11.2005 and section 1 and sections 14 to 94 came into force on 19.10.2006.
    Implementation StatusActive.
    Additional information•The PPV&FR Authority is actively implementing the PPV&FR Act, 2001.• 57 Crop species have been notified upto 31 March, 2013 for registration.

    • So far (upto 31 March, 2013) 600 certificates of registration has been issued.

    •The Authority has also started conferring Plant Genome Saviour Community recognition (with effect from 2007-08)

    • Plant Genome Saviour Community Award (with effect from 2009-10) with a cash amount of Rs.10 Lakhs per community.This has already been conferred to six farming communities.

    • Plant Genome Savior Farmer Recognition and reward has been indicated with effect from 2012.

  • Quality Control arrangement on Seed
    TitleCentral sector scheme for Quality Control Arrangement on Seed
    TypesCentral Sector
    ObjectivesTo create/strengthen quality control infrastructure facilities for seeds – Establishing/strengthening of Seed Testing Laboratory, seed Certification Agency and Human Resource Development to ensure the quality seeds available to the farmers
    Salient featuresTo establish quality control infrastructure facilities to curb the spurious seeds sold in the market.
    Pattern of Assistance100% grants in aid
    EligibilityState Government, State Seed Certification Agencies, Seed Testing Laboratory, Stat Agricultural Universities furnish the proposal based on the approved norms of the scheme.
    Procedures to applyState Government, State Seed Certification Agencies, Seed Testing Laboratory, Stat Agricultural Universities furnish the proposal based on the approved norms of the scheme.
    Person to be contactedThe Joint Secretary,Seeds Division ,Department Agriculture and Cooperation, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi

Question : What are Genetically Modified, transgenic crop/ seed?

Genetically Modified crop contains gene or genes of a different species artificially inserted in its genome when the inserted gene sequence comes from an unrelated plant or from a completely different species, it is also known as transgenic and the resulting GM crop as a transgenic crop.

Question : How are the IPR issues being dealt in India with respect to Seeds Sector?

The department has enacted legislation known as Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001 to protect plant breeder’s rights. The main objectives of the legislation are to (a) stimulate investments for research and development both in the public and the private sectors for the development of new plant varieties by ensuring appropriate returns on such investments; and (b) facilitate the growth of seed industry in the country through domestic and foreign investment which will ensure the availability of high quality seeds and planting material to Indian farmers. PVP & Farmer’s authority is being set up.

Question : What are the areas of application of Biotechnology in Agriculture?

Biotechnology is a tool that has been widely accepted worldwide for improvement of cultivars with regard to

  • Insect pest resistance
  • Tolerance to drought, cold and salinity condition
  • Nutrition enhancement
  • Post harvest quality
  • Value addition.

Apart from the above, the Task Force appointed by the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation under the Chairmanship of Dr. M.S. Swaminathan have recommended the following:

“Biotechnological applications should be viewed comprehensively. Both r-DNA and non-r-DNA applications such as fermentation, bio-processing, bio-pesticides, bio-fertilizers, tissue-culture, micro-propagation and related technological components which are important for Indian agriculture including animal husbandry and fisheries should be viewed as integral components of the planning and promotion of biotechnological applications in agriculture.”

Question : Is there a proposal to make a new Seeds Act and why?

Yes.During the last four decades seed production technologies have changed and new technologies like transgenic, tissue culture, soil-less agriculture etc have emerged. The economy has been substantially liberalized and the private sector is playing an increasing role in various spheres including agriculture. In the liberalized and changed environment, India is increasingly engaging in the import and export of seeds and planting materials and to take into account the changes that have happened in the Seeds Sector, the Seeds Bill, 2004 has been introduced in Rajya Sabha on 9th December 2004 so as to overcome certain deficiencies of the present Seeds Act, 1966 and to take into account the changes that have happened in the seeds sector and Indian economy. Presently the Bill is under active consideration of Parliament.

Question : What are the GM crops approved in India?

Bt.Cotton is the only Genetically Modified crop approved for commercial cultivation by Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) of Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) in nine major cotton growing states viz. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu since 2002.

Question : What are the penalty provisions for sale of spurious seed?

If any person contravenes any provisions of the Seeds Act/Rules, on conviction be punishable:

  • for the first offence with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, and
  • in the event of such person having been previously convicted of an offence under this section, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

Question : What are the rules for export and import of seeds?

Export/import are governed by EXIM Policy of 2009-14 issued by Ministry of Commerce. Under EXIM Policy, provision is made to import which governed by the New Policy on Seed Development, 1988 read with Plant Quarantine Order, 2003 and amendments made thereon. For restricted items the EXIM committee of DAC is empowered to take decision of import/export.

Question : What are the legal instruments for regulation of seeds?

The Seeds Act – 1966, Seeds Rules –1968 and Seeds (Control) Order – 1983.

Question : What is NSC?

The National Seeds Corporation Ltd.(NSC), a Public Sector Undertaking under the administrative control of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, was established in the year 1963 under the Companies Act, 1956 with the objective of producing and distributing Seeds of high quality to the farmers. The Corporation undertakes the production of seeds through Contract Growers. Presently, NSC undertakes production of seed of about 60 crops and 600 varieties/hybrids. NSC was upgraded from schedule ‘C’ to schedule ‘B’ CPSE and also awarded Mini-Ratna category-I in the year 2010.

Question : Does Government of India have its own farm to produce seeds?

Government of India does not have its own farm for production of seed, however, State Farm Corporation of India, a Government of India Undertaking operates Central State Farms in different states. SFCI was set up in 1969 under Companies Act to take quality seed production in Central State Farms. Over the passage of time keeping in view the economic viability of these farms only 5 farms have been retained and others were returned to State Governments since land was taken on lease for a prescribed period of time. principal programmes of the Corporation are (i)Production of breeder and foundation seeds of Cereals, Pulses, Oilseeds, etc. (ii) Certified seed production for State Seeds Corporations and other agencies, (ii) Production of “Test Stock Seed” in respect of identified ‘pre-released varieties’,(iv) Production and distribution of planting materials of Horticulture Crops.The total land under possession of these farms is 25736 hectare and cultivated area is 17819 hectare. The Headquarter of the Corporation is located in its own building at Nehru Place, New Delhi.

Question : What is Seed Bank Scheme?

Establishment & Maintenance of Seed Bank is one of the component of the Central Sector Scheme, “Development and Strengthening of Seed Infrastructural Facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds” is in operation since 1999-2000 onwards. The basic objective of this programme is to meet the requirement of seeds during natural calamities and unforeseen conditions. The Scheme is being implemented through NSC, SFCI and State Seeds Corporations i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Orissa, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Maharashtra, and West Bengal, Kerala State Seed Development Authority and State Department of Agriculture i.e. TamilNadu & Jharkhand.

Question : Whether the PPV & FR Act is under enforcement?

The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Bill having being passed by both the houses of the Parliament received the assent of the president of India on 30 Oct, 2001. It came on the statue Book as ‘The Protection of Plant Varieties and farmers Rights Act, 2001 (53 of 2001)’.In exercise of the Power conferred under sub section (i) of the section 3 of the PPV&FR Act, 2001. GOI established the ‘Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Authority on 11 November, 2005. The PPV&FR Authority is a body corporate under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare with Chairperson as the Chief Executive. Besides the Chairperson the Authority has 15 members notified by the Govt. of India. .

Question : What are the crops covered under the PPV & FR Act for the protection of crop/varieties?

The PPV&FR Act, 2001 applies to all plant varieties except micro-organisms. But for the purposes of registration so far 57 crop species have been notified by the Central Government under Section 29 of PPV&FR Act, 2001 (as on 31 March, 2013) i.e. Registration is open for 57 notified crops namely, Rice, Maize, Sorghum, Pear Millet, Chick pea, Green Black Gram, Lentil Field Pea, Kidney Bean, Cotton, (4 species), Jute, (2 species), Sugarcane, Ginger, Turmeric, Black Pepper, Small Cardamom, Indian Mustard, (2) Rapeseed, (2 species), Sunflower, Safflower, Castor, Sesame, Linseed, Groundnut, Soybean, Potato, Garlic, Tomato, Onion, Brinjal, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Lady’s finger, Rose, (2 species), Mango Chrysanthemum, Orchid (3 genera), Wheat (4 species) coconut, Periwinkle, Indian penywort, Blong Psyllium and Menthol Mint.

Question : To whom the farmers have to approach when the seed fail to perform?

Director of Agriculture/Joint Director of Agriculture/Seed Inspector of the areas concerned.If a variety is registered under PPV&FR Act, 2001 and if it fails to give expected performance under given conditions then the farmers can approach the Authority under Section 39(2) of PPV&FR Act, 2001 claiming compensation.

Question : Is there any facility for the farmer to get the seed tested before sowing?

Seed users and seed producers could get the seed sample tested in the State Seed Testing Laboratories with the minimum fee prescribed to obtain the result to be used as information for seeding, selling or labeling purposes.

Question : What are the measures to curb the sale of spurious/sub-standard seeds?

The Seeds Act, 1966, the Seeds Rules, 1968 and the Seeds (Control) Order, 1983 are the legal instruments to regulate the quality of seeds available in the market. The responsibility for seed law enforcement is vested in the State Governments. The Union Government has already introduced the Seeds Bill in the Parliament to strengthen and upgrade the quality control regime in the country.

Question : What are the Quality Control measures for GM Seeds?

The Ministry of Environment and Forests empowered the Seed Inspector notified Under Section – 13 of the Seeds Act, 1966 and 12 of the Seeds (Control) Order, 1983 to draw the seed samples of transgenic seeds as mentioned under Section – 10 of Environmental (protection) Act,1986 and to test in the notified seed testing laboratories in case of sale of spurious Bt. Cotton seed. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has prescribed minimum limits of purity in respect of Bt. Cotton seed (as Bt. Protein-Toxin) under Section – 6 of the Seeds Act and notified laboratory of Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur as referral laboratory for testing Bt. Cotton seeds.

Question : What is DUS Testing ?

DUS stands for Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability. This is a criteria on the basis of which the Plant Breeders’ Rights will be granted to a variety by the Authority. DUS test will be used as main criteria for deciding the novelty of a variety. The formulation of National test guidelines for DUS testing has been entrusted to ICAR. Out of 35 crops DUS test guidelines for 30 crops are already prepared. Balance 5 is under finalization. DUS testing (Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability) is conducted under section 19 of the PPV&FR Act, 2001 read with Rule 29 of PPV&FR to determine the DUS characteristics of a candidate variety for the purposes of registration.

Source ;FAQ by Ministry of Agriculture , Govt of India

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