MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT: A PARADIGM SHIFT
1. What is the Mandate of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act ( MGNREGA )?
A. The mandate of the MGNREGA is to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
2. What are the core objectives of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)?
A. The core objectives of the MGNREGS are:
(a) Providing not less than one hundred days of unskilled manual work as a guaranteed employment in a financial year to every household in rural areas as per demand, resulting in creation of productive assets of prescribed quality and durability;
(b) Strengthening the livelihood resource base of the poor;
(c) Proactively ensuring social inclusion and (d) Strengthening Panchayati Raj Institutions.
3. What are the Goals of MGNREGA?
A. The goals are:
i) Social protection for the most vulnerable people living in rural India by guaranteeing wage employment opportunities.
ii) Enhance livelihood security of the rural poor through generation of wage employment opportunities in works leading to creation of durable assets.
iii) Rejuvenate natural resource base of rural areas.
iv) Create a durable and productive rural asset base.
vi) Empowerment of the socially disadvantaged, especially, women, Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs), through the processes of a rights-based legislation.
vii) Strengthen decentralised, participatory planning through convergence of various anti-poverty and livelihoods initiatives.
viii) Deepen democracy at the grassroots by strengthening Panchayati Raj Institutions.
4. When was Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act passed by the Indian Parliament?
A. The Indian Parliament passed the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act on 23rd August 2005.
5. When was the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Notified?
A. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was notified through the Gazette of India (Extraordinary) Notification dated September 7, 2005; it came into force on February 2, 2006 in 200 backward districts.
6. When and what amendment was made to change the nomenclature of the Act from NREGA to MGNREGA?
A. On 2nd October 2009 an amendment was made in the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005, to change the nomenclature of the Act from NREGA to MGNREGA. The Section 1 (1) was amended by renaming the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act with the words the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (The Gazette of India Extraordinary Notification dated 2nd October 2009, No. 53).
7. Is the Employment Guarantee Act restricted to particular States or districts?
A. No, it is implemented in all rural districts of the country. MGNREGA was implemented in 200 districts in the first phase with effect from February 2006 and extended subsequently, to additional 113 and 17 districts with effect from April 1st 2007 and May 15th 2007, respectively. The remaining districts were included under the Act with effect from April 1st, 2008. Currently, the Act is under implementation in 644 districts of the country with substantial rural population.
8. What is the relationship between the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (Mahatma Gandhi NREGA) and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (Mahatma Gandhi NREGS)?
9. How an amendment can be made to the schedules of Mahatma Gandhi NREGA 2005?
A. If the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient to do so, it may, by notification, amend Schedule I or Schedule II and thereupon Schedule I or Schedule II, as the case may be, shall be deemed to have been amended (Section 29, of the Act).
10. Whether State Government is having any powers to make rules for effective implementation of Mahatma Gandhi NREGS?
A. Yes, the State Government may by notification make rules to carry out the provisions of Act subject to the conditions of consistency with Mahatma Gandhi NREGA and rules made by the Central Government [(Section 32(1)].
11. Can the Central and State Governments delegate the powers of implementation?
A. Yes, the Central Government may delegate powers (excluding the power to make rules) to State Governments or subordinate officer by a notification and State Governments can delegate the powers to subordinates (Section 26).
12. In what way paradigm shift has taken place with the implementation of MGNREGA?
A. MGNREGA is demand driven wage employment programme and resource transfer from Centre to States is based on the demand for employment in each State. MGNREGA is bottom-up, peoplecentred, demand-driven, self-selecting and rights-based programme. It provides a legal guarantee for wage employment by providing allowances and compensation both in cases of failure to provide work on demand and delays in payment of wages for work undertaken. Plans and decisions regarding the nature and choice of works to be undertaken, the order in which each worksite selection etc., are all to be made in open assemblies of the Gram Sabha (GS) and ratified by the GP. Social audit is a new feature, which creates accountability of performance, especially towards immediate stakeholders. Thus MGNREGA also marks a break from the relief programmes of the past towards an integrated natural resource management and livelihoods generation perspective.
KEY STAKEHOLDERS- ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
13. Who are the key stakeholders of MGNREGS?
A. The key stakeholders are:
1. Wage seekers
2. Gram Sabha (GS)
3. Three-tier Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)
4. Programme Officer at the Block level
5. District Programme Coordinator (DPC)
6. State Government
7. Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD)
8. Civil Society
9. Other stakeholders [viz. line departments, convergence departments, Self-Help Groups (SHGs), etc.]
14. What are the Rights and Entitlements of wage- seekers in MGNREGS?
i. Application for registration
ii. Obtaining a Job Card (JC)
iii. Application for work and to obtain a dated receipt for the application made
iv. Choice of time and duration of the work applied for
v. Getting work within fifteen days of application or from the date when work is sought in the case of an advance application, whichever is later
vi. Facilities of crèche, drinking water,
vii. Right to get 10 per cent extra wage in case of employment provided beyond 5 km of radius.
viii. Right to check their Muster Rolls (MRs) and to get all the information regarding their employment entered in their JCs.
ix. According to Section 3(3) of MGNREGA, workers are entitled to payment on a weekly basis, and in any case within a fortnight of the date on which work was done.
x. Right to get unemployment allowance; in case employment is not provided within fifteen days of submitting the application or from the date when work is sought in the case of an advance application, whichever is later.
xi. Right to receive payment of compensation for the delay, at the rate of 0.05 per cent of the unpaid wages per day beyond the sixteenth day of closure of muster roll.
xii. Medical treatment in case of injury in the course of employment including cost of hospitalisation if required and ex gratia payment in case of disability or death in the course of employment
15. What is the role of Gram Sabha in MGNREGS?
A. The Gram Sabha (GS) has the following rights and responsibilities under the Act:
i. It determines the order of priority of works in the meetings of the Gram Sabha keeping in view potential of the local area, its needs, local resources (Para 4 (2), Schedule I)
ii. Monitor the execution of works within the GP.
iii. It is the primary forum for conduct of social audits. It provides a platform to all residents to seek and obtain all relevant information from all the Implementing Agencies including GP in relation to MGNREGA works implemented in the GP area
16. What are the Roles of Gram Panchayat in MGNREGS?
A. The Gram Panchayat (GP) is responsible for the following activities:
i. Receiving applications for registration
ii. Verifying registration applications
iii. Registering households
iv. Issuing Job Cards(JCs)
v. Receiving applications for work
vi. Issuing dated receipts for these applications for work
vii. Allotting work within fifteen days of submitting the application or from the date when work is sought in the case of an advance application, whichever is later, irrespective of the implementing agency
viii. Conducting periodical surveys to assess demand for work
ix. Identification and planning of works, developing shelf of projects including determination of the order of their priority. Forward the list of works to Programme Officer for scrutiny and preliminary approval
x. Executing works that shall meet the required technical standards and measurements
xi. Maintaining records as specified in the MGNREGA Operational Guidelines, 2013
xii. Maintaining accounts and providing utilisation certificates in formats prescribed by Central/ State Government.
xiii. Prepare annually a report containing the facts and figures and achievements relating to the implementation of the Scheme within its jurisdiction and, copy of the same to be made available to the public on demand and on payment of such fee as may be specified in the Scheme
xiv. Awareness generation and social mobilisation.
xv. Convening the GS for planning and social audit xvi. Make available all relevant documents including the Muster Rolls, bills, vouchers, measurement books, copies of sanction orders and other connected books of account and papers to the GS for the purpose of conducting the social audit xvii. Monitoring implementation at the village level
xviii. Pro-actively disclosing -Details of works both completed and on-going (including wages paid and material component) at worksites and names of persons (with JC numbers) who have worked, days worked for and wages paid, quantity and price of materials purchased for each project along with name of agency supplying the material at GP offices and other prominent public places
xix. Providing all information specified in Audit of Schemes Rules to the Social Audit Unit.
xx. Organise Rozgar Diwas at every ward and Gram Panchayat level at least once a month.
Note: Where Part IX of the Constitution does not apply, local councils/authorities as mandated by the State concerned will be vested with corresponding responsibilities.
17. What are the Roles and Responsibilities of PO in MGNREGS?
A. The PO acts as a coordinator for Mahatma Gandhi NREGS (MGNREGS) at the Block level. The primary responsibility of the PO is to ensure that anyone who applies for work gets employment within 15 days. Other important functions of the PO are:
i) Consolidating, after scrutiny, all project proposals received from GPs into the Block Plan and submitting it to the District Panchayat for scrutiny and consolidation
ii) Matching employment opportunities arising from works within the Block Plan with the demand for work at each GP in the Block
iii) Ensuring baseline surveys to assess work demand
iv) Monitoring and supervising implementation of works taken up by GPs and other implementing agencies within the Block
v) Ensuring prompt and fair payment of wages to all labourers and payment of unemployment allowance in case employment is not provided on time
vi) Maintaining proper accounts of the resources received, released and utilised
vii) Redressing grievances within the Block. The PO shall enter every complaint in a complaint register and issue dated and numbered acknowledgement. Complaints that fall within the jurisdiction of the PO, including any complaints concerning the implementation of the Act by a GP shall be disposed of by the PO within 7 days, as prescribed under Section 23(6) of the Act. In case a complaint relates to a matter to be resolved by any other authority, the PO shall conduct a preliminary enquiry and refer the matter to such authority within seven days under intimation to the complainant
viii) Ensuring conduct of social audits and following up on required actions
ix) Ensuring all the required information and records of all implementing agencies such as JC register, employment register, work register, GS resolution, copies of the sanctions (administrative or technical or financial), work estimates, work commencement order, Muster Roll issue and receipt register, Muster Rolls, wage payment acquaintance, materials – bills and vouchers (for each work), measurement books (for each work), asset register, action taken report on previous social audits, grievance or complaints register
x) Ensuring any other documents that the Social Audit Unit (SAU) requires to conduct the social audit processes are properly collated in the requisite formats; and provided along with photocopies to the SAU for facilitating conduct of social audit at least fifteen days in advance of the scheduled date of meeting of the GS
xi) Setting up Cluster-Level Facilitation Teams (CFTs) to provide technical support to GPs within each Cluster of GPs where the CFTs are not established in convergence with National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) as per the convergence project of MGNREGA with NRLM
xii) Facilitating technical support to Gram Panchayats by CFTs
xiii) Liaison with banks and post offices in opening up of new accounts and making regular and timely payments to labour. Liaison between GPs and block as also between block and district for all correspondence and communication
xiv) Organise formal monthly meetings with civil society organisations (CSOs) involved in facilitating MGNREGS implementation in the block
18. Who is designated as PO in MGNREGS?
A. At the block level Executive authorities such as Tehsildar/Block Development Officer are often designated as PO. For blocks that have high concentration of SC/STs/landless labourers and are likely to have more demand for MGNREGA works should have a committed/dedicated PO for MGNREGA. The PO should not be assigned responsibilities not directly related to MGNREGA.
19. What are the functions of Intermediate Panchayat in MGNREGS?
A. The function of the Panchayat at intermediate level shall be, to:
i) Approve the works with the expected outcomes to be executed by Intermediate Panchayat;
ii) Approve the block level plan for forwarding it to the district Panchayat at the district level for final approval;
iii) Supervise and monitor the projects taken up at the Gram Panchayat and block level;
iv) Carry out such other functions as may be assigned to it by the State Council, from time to time;
v) Where Part IX of the Constitution does not apply, local councils/authorities as mandated by the State concerned, will be vested with these responsibilities.
20. Who is DPC in MGNREGS?
A. The State Government designates a DPC, who can be either the Chief Executive Officer of the District Panchayat (DP), or the District Collector (DC), or any other district level officer of appropriate rank. The DPC is responsible for the implementation of the scheme in the district, in accordance with the provisions made in the MGNREGA 2005 and rules and guidelines made thereunder.
21. What are the functions of DPC in MGNREGS?
A. The DPC shall:
i) Assist the DP in discharging its functions
ii) Receive the Block Panchayat plans and consolidate them along with project proposals received from other implementing agencies for inclusion in the District Plan for approval by the DPs
iii) Accord timely sanction to shelf of projects
iv) Ensure that any new projects added at block and district level are presented again for ratification and fixing priority by concerned GS(s) before administrative sanction is accorded to them.
v) Ensure timely release and utilisation of funds
vi) Ensure that wage-seekers are provided with work as per their entitlements under this Act.
vii) Review, monitor and supervise the performance of the POs and all implementing agencies in relation to MGNREGA works viii) Conduct and cause to be conducted periodic inspection of the works in progress and verification of Muster Rolls
ix) Ensure that First Information Report (FIR) is filed in every case in which there is prima facie, evidence of misutilisation of funds
x) Appoint Project Implementation Agencies (PIAs) throughout the district, keeping in mind that for at least 50 per cent of value of works, the PIAs need to be GPs
xi) Coordinate an Information Education and Communication (IEC) campaign for MGNREGA within the district
xii) Develop annual plans for training and capacity building of various stakeholders within the district xiii) Submit periodic progress and updates to the State Government
xiv) Ensure that social audits are conducted in all GPs once in six months and ensure follow-up action on social audit reports
xv) Ensure that all transactions including issue of JCs, recording of applications for work, allocation of work, generation of wage slips and Fund Transfer Orders (FTOs), entries relating to work performed, delayed payment of wages, and unemployment allowance are made through NREGASoft only.
xvi) Ensure that all entries relating to works such as details of the shelf of works, GPS coordinates, status of implementation, photographs of works at three different stages are entered in NREGASoft at every required stage. Information regarding completion of work should be entered in as soon as possible but in any case no later than two months from the time of physical completion
xvii) Ensure that all funds received by Implementing Agencies and district level authorities including Panchayats are posted in NREGASoft no later than two days of receipt of such funds
xviii) Ensure that all required entries in NREGASoft are made by all concerned officials including the line departments, in the district.
22. What are the responsibilities of District Panchayat under MGNREGA?
A. District Panchayats (DPs) are responsible for:
i) Approving the works with the expected outcomes to be executed by District Panchayat.
ii) Consolidation of Annual Block Plans (within the district) into a District Plan
iii) Monitoring and supervision of the MGNREG Scheme in the district
iv) Carry out such other functions as may be assigned to it by the State Council, from time to time.
23. What are the Roles of State Employment Guarantee Council (SEGC)?
A. The SEGC has the following roles and responsibilities:
i) Advise the State Government on the implementation of the Scheme
ii) Review the monitoring and redressal mechanisms and suggest improvements
iii) Evaluate and monitor the Scheme within the State
iv) Recommend the proposals of works to be submitted to the Central Government under para 4(IV)(ix), Schedule I of the Act
v) Promote widest possible dissemination of information about this Act and the Schemes therein
vi) Prepare the annual report to be laid before the State Legislature by the State Governments
24. What are the responsibilities of State Government in MGNREGS?
A. The responsibilities of the State Government are following:
i) Frame Rules on matters pertaining to State responsibilities under Section 32 of the Act
ii) Develop and notify the Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme for the State
iii) Set up the SEGC
iv) Set up a State level MGNREGS implementation agency/ mission with adequate number of high calibre professionals
v) Set up a State level MGNREGS social audit agency/directorate with adequate number of people with knowledge on MGNREGA processes and demonstrated commitment to social audit
vi) Establish and operate a State Employment Guarantee Fund (SEGF)
vii) Ensure that the State share of the MGNREGS budget is provisioned for and released into the SEGF in the beginning of the financial year so that it can be used as a revolving fund
viii) Ensure that full time dedicated personnel, wherever required, are in place for implementing MGNREGA, specially the Employment Guarantee Assistant (Gram Rozgar Sahayak), the PO and the staff at State, district, cluster and GP level
ix) Delegate financial and administrative powers to the DPC and the Programme Officer, as is deemed necessary for the effective implementation of the Scheme
x) Establish a network of professional agencies for training, technical support and for qualitycontrol measures
xi) Regular review, research, monitoring and evaluation of MGNREGS processes and outcomes
xii) Ensure accountability and transparency in the Scheme at all levels
xiii) Generate widest possible awareness about MGNREGA across the State
xiv) Ensure that civil society organisations involved in mobilising MGNREGA workers are able to formally meet State, district and block level officials in a formal setting at least once a month
xv) Ensure compliance with all processes laid down in Act, Rules and guidelines.
25. What are the roles and responsibilities of Central Employment Guarantee Council (CEGC)?
A. The roles and responsibilities of the CEGC, as per the Act, are to:
i) Establish a central evaluation and monitoring system
ii) Advise the Central Government on all matters concerning the implementation of the Act
iii) Review the monitoring and redressal mechanism from time to time and recommend improvements required
iv) Promote the widest possible dissemination of information about the Schemes
v) Monitoring the implementation of this Act
vi) Preparation of annual reports to be laid before Parliament by the Central Government on the implementation of this Act.
26. What are the Roles & Responsibilities of the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD)?
A. The roles and responsibilities of the MoRD are:
i) Frame Rules under the Act
ii) Issue Operational Guidelines for the effective implementation of the Act
iii) Review list of permissible works under MGNREGA in response to demands of State Governments
iv) Constitute the CEGC and organise meetings of the council.
v) Set up and operate National Employment Guarantee Fund
vi) Set up National Management Team (NMT) within the Department of Rural Development to perform the national level functions under MGNREGA
vii) Make budgetary allocation and ensure timely release of Central share
viii) Maintain and operate the MIS to capture and track data on critical aspects of implementation, and assess the utilisation of resources through a set of performance indicators
ix) Support and facilitate use of Information Technology (IT) to increase the efficiency and transparency in implementation of the Act
x) Facilitate technical support and capacity building to improve outcomes
xi) Support innovations that help in improving processes towards the achievement of the objectives of the Act
xii) Monitor, evaluate and conduct research on the performance of MGNREGA
xiii) Empanel agencies that can be used by State Governments as PIAs for implementation of MGNREGA works and determine the percentage value of funding that can be given to them to meet their administrative costs
27. What roles can Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and Self-Help Groups (SHGs) play in MGNREGS?
A. The CSOs working at the grassroots can play a very significant role in awareness generation among wage-seekers and in supporting and building capacities of GPs and State Governments in planning, implementation and social audit of MGNREGA. The SHGs can play a direct role in spreading awareness, organising work, accessing entitlements, assistance in door to door survey and ensuring social accountability. The MGNREGA Operational Guidelines provide the framework for engagement of CSOs, support in the operationalisation of CFT project in convergence with NRLM.
28. Who are the other stakeholders in MGNREGS?
A. Other important stakeholders include: Members of Social Audit Unit, Vigilance and Monitoring Committees, Technical Staff of implementing agencies, Departments with whom MoU has been signed for convergence with MGNREGA, viz, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Forest & Environment, Ministry of Water Resources, Department of Rural Development, Department of Land Resources and Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation and Departments which stand to benefit from MGNREGA like Agriculture, Water Resources/Irrigation, Forest etc.
JOB CARDS, DEMAND FOR WORK AND UNEMPLOYMENT ALLOWANCE
29. What is a Job Card?
A. Job Card is a key document that records workers’ entitlements under MGNREGA. It legally empowers the registered households to apply for work, ensures transparency and protects workers against fraud.
30. What is the procedure to register oneself for employment?
A. Household having adult members desirous of seeking unskilled wage employment in MGNREGA may apply for registration. The application for registration may be given on prescribed form or plain paper to the local Gram Panchayat. To allow maximum opportunities to families that may migrate, registration shall also be opened throughout the year at the GP office.
31. How is Household defined in MGNREGA?
A. “Household” means the members of a family related to each other by blood, marriage or adoption and normally residing together and sharing meals or holding a common ration card.
32. What is the significance of door to door survey in identification of eligible household under MGNREGA?
A. Door to door survey helps to identify eligible households who have been missed out and wish to be registered under the Act. It should be undertaken by each GP every year and need to be ensured that this survey is held at that time of the year when people have not migrated to other areas in search of employment or for other reasons.
33. Who can apply for Job Card Registration?
A. A household having adult members desirous of seeking unskilled employment in MGNREGA may apply for registration.
34. What is the frequency of Job Card registration?
A. Throughout the Year
35. Who should apply for Job Card on behalf of a Household?
A. Any adult member can apply on behalf of Household.
36. What is the definition of an adult in a household?
A. Adult means a person who has completed 18 years of age.
37. Can all adult members of a household register for Job Card?
A. Adult members of a household willing to do unskilled manual work can register themselves to obtain a job card under MGNREGA.
38. Is there any pre-printed form for providing details while registering for Job Card?
A. The State Government may make a printed form available as per format prescribed in the relavant Annexures of the MGNREGA Operational Guidelines 2013. However, a printed form should not be insisted upon.
39. What are the issues the Gram Panchayat need to verify when application was made for Job Card?
A. The Gram Panchayat need to verify: –
- Whether the household is really an entity as stated in the application –
- Applicant households are local residents in the GP concerned –
- Applicants are adult members of the household
The process of verification shall be completed not later than a fortnight after the receipt of the application.
40. For how many years is the registration for Job Card valid?
A. The registration is valid for five years and may be renewed/re-validated following process prescribed for renewal/revalidation as and when required.
41. If the information contained in the application found to be incorrect, what is the process to be adopted?
A. The Gram Panchayat will refer the application to PO. The PO, after independent verification of facts and giving the person concerned an opportunity to be heard, may direct the GP to either
(i). register the household or
(ii). reject the application or
(iii). secure the particulars correct and re-process the application.
42. What is the time limit for issuing Job Cards (JC) if the application made is correct?
A. Within a fortnight after due verification is completed on finding out eligibility of a household, the job cards should be issued to all such eligible households.
43. Can the Job Card be handed over to any member of the household?
A. Yes, it can be handed over to any adult member of the applicant’s household in the presence of a few other residents of the GP.
44. Should the cost towards Job Card (including the photograph affixed on it) be borne by the applicant?
A. No, the cost of the Job Cards, including that of the photographs affixed on it, are covered under the administrative expenses and borne as a part of the programme cost.
45. If a person has grievance against the non-issuance of a Job Card, then to whom s/he has to represent the matter?
A. The matter can be brought to the notice of PO. If the grievance is against the PO, then the matter can be brought to the notice of DPC or the designated grievance-redressal authority at the block or district level.
46. Is there any time-limit to address the grievances in regard to non-issuance of Job Card?
A. Yes, all such complaints shall be disposed off within 15 days.
47. Is there any provision to provide duplicate Job Card for a lost one?
A. Yes, a Job Cardholder may apply for a duplicate Job Card, if the original is lost or damaged. The application will be given to the GP and shall be processed in the manner of a new application, with the difference being that the particulars may also be verified using the duplicate copy of the JC maintained by the Panchayat.
48. Who is the custodian of Job Card?
A. It must be ensured that the JC is always in the custody of the household to whom it is issued. If for any reason i.e., updation of record, it is taken by implementing agencies it should be returned on the same day after the updates. JCs found in the possession of any Panchayat or MGNREGA functionary, without a valid reason, will be considered as an offence punishable under Section 25 of the Act
49. Can any adult member of household seek wage employment?
A. Every adult member of a registered household whose name appears in the JC shall be entitled to apply for unskilled manual work.
50. Is there any duration limit fixed for seeking work by adult individuals registered in the JC?
A. Yes, as per Para 11, Schedule II normally, applications for work must be for at least fourteen days of continuous work, other than the works relating to access to sanitation facilities, for which application for work shall be for atleast six days of continuous work. As per Para 10, Schedule II there shall be no limit on the number of days of employment for which a person may apply, or on the number of days of employment actually provided subject to the aggregate entitlement of the household.
51. Can a job card be cancelled?
A. No, as per Para 4, Schedule II no job card can be cancelled except where it is found to be a duplicate, or if the entire household has permanently migrated to a place outside the Gram Panchayat and no longer lives in the village.
52. When is an applicant eligible for Unemployment allowance?
A. If an applicant is not provided employment within fifteen days of receipt of his/her application seeking employment, in all cases of advance application, employment should be provided from the date that employment has been sought, or within 15 days of the date of application, whichever is later. Else, unemployment allowance becomes due. It will be calculated automatically by the computer system or the Management Information System (MIS).
53. Who is responsible for the payment of Unemployment allowance?
A. As per Section 7(3) of MGNREGA, State Government is liable to pay unemployment allowance to the household concerned. State Government shall: –
- Specify the rate of unemployment allowance payable [Section 7 (2) of Act]
- Frame Rules governing the procedure for payment of unemployment allowance and
- Make necessary budgetary provision for payment of unemployment allowance.
54. When does the liability of State Government cease in regard to payment of unemployment allowance?
A. The liability of the State Government to pay unemployment allowance to a household during any financial year shall cease as soon as:
a. The applicant is directed by the GP or the PO to report for work either by himself or depute at least one adult member of his household; or
b. The period for which employment is sought comes to an end and no member of the household of the applicant had turned up for employment; or
c. The adult members of the household of the applicant have received in total at least one hundred days of work within the financial year; or
d. The household of the applicant has earned as much from the wages and unemployment allowance taken together which is equal to the wages for one hundred days of work during the financial year.
e. An applicant who:-
- Does not accept the employment provided to his/her household; or
- Does not report for work within fifteen days of being notified by the Programme Officer or the implementing agency to report for the work; or
- Continuously remains absent from work, without obtaining permission from the concerned implementing agency for a period of more than one week or remains absent for a total period of more than one week in any month.
INSTITUTIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND HUMAN RESOURCE
55. Who are the key functionaries at GP level?
A. Gram Rozgar Sahayak or Employment Guarantee Assistant and Mates or worksite supervisors are the key functionaries at GP level.
56. What are the responsibilities of Gram Rozgar Sahayak?
A. The responsibilities of the GRS are as follows:
a. Overseeing the process of registration, distribution of job cards, provision of dated receipts against job applications, allocation of work to applicants etc.;
b. Facilitating Gram Sabha meetings, social audits and Rozgar Diwas;
c. Recording attendance of labour every day either himself/ herself or through the mate in the prescribed muster rolls at the worksite;
d. Ensuring that group mark-outs are given at worksite for every group of labourers, so that the workers know the output required to be given to earn wage rate every day;
e. Ensuring that all mates attend worksites on time and take roll calls/ attendance in prescribed muster roll at worksite only;
f. Ensuring worksite facilities [as defined in the Operational Guidelines] and updating job cards of the workers regularly;
g. Maintaining all MGNREGS-related registers at the Gram Panchayat level, assist the Panchayat Secretary or any other official responsible for maintenance of MGNREGA accounts; and ensuring that these documents are conveniently available for public scrutiny
57. Who is Mate under MGNREGS?
A. A mate is a worksite supervisor. At least one mate should be present for every 100 workers. A person working as a mate should not be a worker on the same MGNREGS worksite at the same point of time.
58. What are the selection criteria for Mate?
A. Mate should be selected on the basis of well-publicised transparent criteria and preference can be given to the most deserving women families and differently-abled. The mate should, preferably be an educated woman worker who should have worked for at least 50 days as a worker in MGNREGS in the previous/ current financial year.
59. How is Mate paid?
A. The mate should be paid in the same wages as a skilled worker.
60. What are the responsibilities of a Mate?
A. The responsibilities of a Mate are:
a. Supervise worksites.
b. Record daily attendance in muster roll.
c. Give mark-outs at the worksite before beginning the work.
d. Take measurement at the end of the day.
e. Update entries in the job cards.
f. Facilitate applications for job cards and submit them to the GP.
g. Facilitate demand for work from individual workers or groups of labourers, submit them to GP and obtain dated receipt as acknowledgement.
h. Facilitate participatory identification of works in the GP.
i. Ensure there is no free-riding within his/her group of workers.
j. Submit filled-in muster rolls to GRS.
k. Ensure that the first aid box with adequate material for emergency treatment for minor injuries and other health hazards connected with the work being executed are available at the worksite.
l. Help illiterate labourers in his/her group to learn to sign and to calculate wages earned.
m. Create awareness about rights and entitlements under the MGNREGA.
61. Who are the key functionaries at cluster of GPs/sub- district/block level?
A. Human resources at cluster of GPs/sub- district/block level are the (i) Programme Officer, (ii) Technical Assistant, (iii) Computer Operator-cum-Accounts Clerk, (iv) Voluntary Technical Corps and the (v) Cluster Facilitation Team.
62. Who is Technical Assistant and what are his/ her responsibilities?
A. The Technical Assistant (TA) assists the GP in identifying and conducting measurement of works. TA is appointed for every 5 Gram Panchayats or 2500 active job cards. The responsibilities of a TA are:
a. Identification of works as per the Gram Sabha resolution on works.
b. Preparation of estimates for works in standard prescribed templates.
c. Capturing measurements on a weekly basis or soon after closure of the muster roll, whichever is earlier.
d. Be responsible for quality of work.
e. Maintenance of measurement books.
f. Mentoring mates and GRSs on measurement and quality of works.
g. Building technical capacities of mates and GRSs.
63. What are the responsibilities of Computer Operator cum Account Clerk?
A. The responsibilities of a Computer Operator-cum-Accounts Clerk are:
a. Data entry and generation of job cards, work demand (registered), technical estimates, work commencement letters, etc.
b. Generation of pay orders and preparing necessary cheques.
c. Maintenance of Accounts, Registers, Files and other MGNREGS related documents.
d. Generation of MIS and other review reports for Programme Officer
64. What is Cluster Facilitation Team?
A. The CFT comprises three specialists, one each for community mobilisation, soil and moisture conservation and agriculture & allied activities. It is placed in the most backward blocks with Poor Human Development Indicators, Tribal areas, High population of SCs, Poor connectivity and having active presence of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) or Community Based Organisation. It is operationalised under convergence of MGNREGA with NRLM and with the support of CSOs. Where it is not operationalised under convergence project State Government has to establish CFT utilising the fund available under administrative expenditure component.
65. What are the roles and responsibilities of the team?
A. The major responsibilities of the CFT are:
- Mobilisation and raising awareness among potential job seekers about their entitlements and procedures under MGNREGA;
- Facilitate preparation of the Annual Plan each year for every GP within the cluster resulting in a shelf of works and annual labour and material budget.
- Prepare plans for such components in consultation with the GPs where there are significant externalities beyond the boundaries of a single GP. The CFT would ensure GS approval for such Perspective Plans.
- Work with elected representatives and functionaries on all aspects of planning and implementation of MGNREGA including asset verification, measurement, payment, monitoring & evaluation, NREGASoft maintenance and Social Audit.
- Train and provide technical guidance to elected representatives and functionaries such as Community Resource Persons (barefoot professionals), Gram Rozgar Sahayaks, GP members and GP Secretaries.
- Conduct random checks of the measurements taken by the Technical Assistants.
- Do resource mapping, an assessment of quantitative and qualitative status of natural resources (topography, soil depth and quality, rainfall, water bodies, groundwater, vegetation)
- Assess the additional resources required.
66. Who is Programme Officer and what are his responsibilities?
A. The PO is the overall in-charge of all MGNREGS works in the block and is not below the rank of a Block Development Officer (BDO). The Programme Officer reports to DPC and Additional DPC of the district.
67. What are the roles and responsibilities of PO?
A. The responsibilities of the PO are as follows:
i. Consolidating, after scrutiny, all project proposals received from GPs into the Block Plan and submitting it to the District Panchayat for scrutiny and consolidation
ii. Matching employment opportunities arising from works within the Block Plan with the demand for work at each GP in the block
iii. Ensuring baseline surveys to assess work demand
iv. Monitoring and supervising implementation of works taken up by GPs and other implementing agencies within the block
v. Ensuring prompt and fair payment of wages to all labourers and payment of unemployment allowance in case employment is not provided on time
vi. Maintaining proper accounts of the resources received, released and utilised
vii. Redressing grievances in the block within 7 days, as prescribed under Section 23(6) of the Act. In case a complaint relates to a matter to be resolved by any other authority, the PO shall conduct a preliminary enquiry and refer the matter to such authority within seven days under intimation to the complainant
viii. Ensuring conduct of social audits and following up on required actions
ix. Ensuring availability of all the required information and records of all implementing agencies (JC register, employment register, work register, GS resolution, copies of the sanctions (administrative or technical or financial), work estimates, work commencement order, Muster Roll issue and receipt register, Muster Rolls, wage payment acquaintance, materials – bills and vouchers (for each work), measurement books (for each work), asset register, action taken report on previous social audits, grievance or complaints register)
x. Ensuring availability of any other documents that the Social Audit Unit (SAU) requires to conduct the social audit processes are properly collated in the requisite formats; and provided along with photocopies to the SAU for facilitating conduct of social audit at least fifteen days in advance of the scheduled date of meeting of the GS
xi. Facilitating technical support to Gram Panchayats by CFTs
xii. Liaison with banks and post offices in opening up of new accounts and making regular and timely payments to labour. Liaison between GPs and block as also between block and district for all correspondence and communication xiii. Organise formal monthly meetings with civil society organisations (CSOs) involved in facilitating MGNREGS implementation in the block
68. What is Block Resource Centre and what are the roles and responsibilities of the Centre?
A. A Block Resource Centre (BRC) facilitates knowledge inputs, capacity building and convergence. Existing resource organisations from the voluntary sector could be identified as BRC.
69. What are the roles and responsibilities of BRC?
A. The BRC will perform the following functions:
- Provide technical inputs for planning, including those sourced from a wider network of resource persons/ institutions.
- Maintain database on local natural resource endowment (viz. groundwater, rainfall, soils, etc.) needed for planning. The BRC will also access maps/ topo-sheets of each habitation and supply the same to CFTs.
- Ensure convergence between MGNREGS and other production-oriented schemes of government for gap filling and value addition so that assets created under MGNREGS are productively by the poor to enhance their incomes.
70. Who is Additional District Programme Coordinator under MGNREGA?
A. A full-time Additional DPC exclusively appointed for MGNREGS should, look into the day-to-day operations of MGNREGS and provide leadership in programme implementation at the district level. The Additional DPC would report to DPC and CEO, State Employment Guarantee Mission (SEGM).The Additional DPC should be given technical support by specialists in Agriculture engineering/Civil engineering, Agriculture/ horticulture, MIS, capacity building and social mobilisation.
71. What are the responsibilities of Additional DPC?
A. The responsibilities of Additional DPC are:
i) Head the District EGS Unit comprising functional wings such as Works, Finance and Accounts, Quality Control and Vigilance, Social Audit, MIS, Horticulture, Natural, resource management (NRM), Capacity Building etc.
ii) Preparation of District Labour Budget.
iii) Managing MGNREGS Funds, Finance and Accounts.
iv) Planning of numerous shelf of works for the district.
v) Ensure opening of works to meet the labour demand.
vi) Ensure timely payments.
vii) Ensure quality of works.
viii) Ensure proper management of muster rolls.
ix) Attend to complaints and redressal of grievances.
x) Regular reviews with BDO / Programme Officers, Block Officers and other implementing agencies.
xi) Regular monitoring and inspection of worksites.
xii) Social Audit and Social Audit follow-up actions.
xiii) Conduct training & capacity building of all MGNREGS field staff in the district.
xiv) Ensure Transparency and Accountability.
72. What is a State Employment Guarantee Mission and who are on Management Team?
A. State Employment Guarantee Mission (SEGM) is headed by a senior officer (Secretary/Commissioner MGNREGS), who is designated as Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Mission. SEGM will also have a Chief Operating Officer (COO). The following is an indicative list of fields where thematic experts may be required.
a. Rights and entitlements;
b. Participatory planning process for livelihoods and convergence;
c. Natural Resource Management (NRM), livelihoods, Quality Standardisation and Assurance;
d. Technical Works & Measurement;
e. Wage payment;
f. Information and Communication Technology (ICT);
h. Strategy & Planning;
i. Monitoring & Evaluation;
j. Social Inclusion;
k. Capacity building – Training of field staff at the block, cluster and GP;
l. Human resource management – Developing a sensitive human resource management policy for contract staff and/or permanent staff;
m. Social audit and grievance redress mechanism;
o. Knowledge Management and learning including research;
p. External communication
The thematic experts will play their roles in such a manner as to provide oversight, build capacity, resolve problems and monitor quality of programme implementation at the district, cluster and GP.
73. What is a National Management Team?
A. A National Management Team (NMT) will be set up within the Department of Rural Development to perform the national level functions under MGNREGA. These functions would be handled by the following divisions of the NMT:
i) Programme Management
ii) Human Resource Development and Capacity Building
iii) Monitoring and Evaluation (M & E)
iv) Information Technology (IT)
v) Social Audit, Vigilance and Grievance Redress Process
The NMT will be headed by the Additional Secretary/Joint Secretary (MGNREGA).
CAPACITY BUILDING AND AWARENESS GENERATION
74. Who will facilitate the training programmes at national level and what is the role played?
A. At the national level, the Human Resource Development and Capacity Building Division within the National Management Team (NMT) will facilitate the entire training effort. The Human Resource Development and Capacity Building Division will
i) Act as a coordinating and facilitating agency between different State level resource centres.
ii) Help to define and refine, in coordination with State resource centres, training policy at both State and national levels and make training need assessments.
iii) Act as a clearing house for training material and resources and as a nodal centre actively involved in development and dissemination of training material, methods and resources.
iv) Identify and mobilise institutions which can play the role of training institutions for MGNREGA across the country.
v) Define training content and syllabi for different stakeholders.
vi) Draw up a national level training plan for different stages of MGNREGA implementation and for different stakeholders, factoring in State level training plans.
vii) Identify and induct capable Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), professional agencies, technical institutes and other institutions who can conduct MGNREGA training and support.
viii) Ensure that training requirements for MGNREGA are actually being fulfilled across the country as per the training plan.
ix) Monitor the quality of training imparted and make specific, relevant recommendations for improvement of the same.
x) Give clear recommendations and set clear deadlines to ensure compliance with the broadly agreed training road map.
75. What is the role of State in organising capacity building programmes?
A. Each State will set up a MGNREGA Human Resource Development and Capacity Building Division and it will be responsible to
i) train district level MGNREGA training and support teams, who would be master trainers in this cascading model.
ii) offer regular support services to the district teams.
iii) act as an expert resource agency.
iv) ensure training quality.
v) organise exposure visits for Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and village communities.
vi) help refine training material and
vii) monitor the work of the district training units.
76. What are the arrangements suggested at district level for capacity building?
A. District Human Resource Development and Capacity Building Unit should be set up. The unit should comprise full-time competent resource persons who act as master trainers for MGNREGA, providing training and field-based hand-holding support to block and sub-block implementation teams. The training personnel can be drawn from Cluster Facilitation Teams (CFTs) or can be selected afresh.
77. What are the different modes of communication used for IEC activities?
A. Project initiation meetings, use of helplines and rural common service centres, wall paintings, door to door contact programmes, schools and colleges, village libraries, engagement of Bharat Nirman Volunteers and Nehru Yuvak Kendras, Engagement of SHGs.
PLANNING FOR WORKS AND PREPARATION OF LABOUR BUDGET
78. What is a Gram Panchayat Development Plan under MGNREGA?
A. Section 16 (3) & (4) of the Act states that every Gram Panchayat shall prepare a Development Plan and maintain a shelf of works to meet the employment demand. A development plan is an annual work plan that comprises shelf of projects for each village with administrative and technical approvals.
The development plan is a rolling plan, since the approved shelf of projects may carry over one financial year to the next depending upon this lifespan of the projects.
79. What is a District Perspective Plan under MGNREGA?
A. District Perspective Plan is prepared for five years, which identifies the needs and gap in the districts in all the sectors. The district perspective plan is a multi-year plan for different departmental projects. The district perspective plans should be prepared in such a manner that it can be breakable into various annual plans.
80. List out the Components of Development Plan?
i. Assessment of labour demand
ii. Identification of works- to meet estimated labour demand
iii. Estimated cost of works and wages
iv. Benefits expected in terms of employment generated and physical improvements. (Water conservation and Land productivity).
81. List out the guiding principle for preparing the Development Plan?
A. There are five guiding principles to be followed while preparing the development plan:
a. The number of works in the shelf of projects in a village should be much more than the estimated demand.
b. The plot numbers of the sites where works are to be executed should be mentioned, so that each work has a unique location code.
c. Outcomes expected from the works should be stated in terms of :
i. Estimated benefits in terms of employment generated measurable in persondays
ii. Physical improvement envisaged measurable in specific units
iii. Benefits to the community
d. List of approved works with technical estimates should be displayed in the gram panchayat in simple local language
e. Pre-Mid-Post Project condition of works to be recorded with photographs
f. Each work taken up with unique number (irrespective of the implementing agency) has to be recorded in the works register to be maintained at GP to enable verification and prevent duplication
82. What are the components to be filled in Labour Budget format?
A. Labour budget format comprises month-wise details for the next financial year, such as:
i. Projection of households to be provided employment
ii. Projected persondays to be generated
iii. Projected wage expenditure
iv. Projected material expenditure
83. Mention the four work guidelines to be considered while executing MGNREGS works.
A. The four work guidelines to be adopted:
i. Only those works can be taken up which result in creation of durable assets and strengthen livelihood resources of the rural poor.
ii. As per Para 4(2), Schedule I, the order of priority of works shall be determined by each Gram Panchayat in the meetings of the Gram Sabha keeping in view potential of the local area, its needs, local resources.
iii. The 60:40 ratio for wage and material costs should be maintained at GP level for all works to be taken up by GP and for works to be taken up by agencies other than GP, it should be maintained at the Block/ Intermediate Panchayat level.
iv. As far as practicable, works executed by the programme implementation agencies shall be performed by using manual labour and no labour displacing machines shall be used (Para 22, Schedule I)
84. What is the role of the Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat in the planning process?
A. The Gram Sabha identifies, prioritises and recommends the works that are permissible under MGNREGA. The Gram Panchayat should consolidate and send the recommendations of Gram Sabha to the Programme Officer. (Section 16 of the Act).
85. What is the due date for submission of District Labour Budget and Development Plan by DPC to State Government?
A: Every year by December 31, the District Programme Coordinator shall forward the approved Labour Budget and Development Plan of next financial year to the State Government.
WORKS AND THEIR EXECUTION
86. What types of works are taken up under Mahatma Gandhi NREGS?
A. Para 4(1), Schedule I provides provision for the following works under MGNREGA:
I. Category: A: Public Works Relating to Natural Resources Management –
(i) Water conservation and water harvesting structures to augment and improve groundwater like underground dykes, earthen dams, stop dams, check dams with special focus on recharging groundwater including drinking water sources;
(ii) Watershed management works such as contour trenches, terracing, contour bunds, boulder checks, gabion structures and springshed development resulting in a comprehensive treatment of a watershed;
(iii) Micro and minor irrigation works and creation, renovation and maintenance of irrigation canals and drains;
(iv) Renovation of traditional water bodies including desilting of irrigation tanks and other water bodies;
(v) Afforestation, tree plantation and horticulture in common and forest lands, road margins, canal bunds, tank foreshores and coastal belts duly providing right to usufruct to the households covered in Paragraph 5; and
(vi) Land development works in common land.
II. Category B : Individual Assets for Vulnerable Sections (Only for Households in Paragraph 5 of Schedule I)
(i) Improving productivity of lands of households specified in Paragraph5 through land development and by providing suitable infrastructure for irrigation including dug wells, farm ponds and other water harvesting structures;
(ii) Improving livelihoods through horticulture, sericulture, plantation, and farm forestry;
(iii) Development of fallow or wastelands of households defined in Paragraph 5 of the Schedule I to bring it under cultivation;
(iv) Unskilled wage component in construction of houses sanctioned under the Indira Awaas Yojana or such other State or Central Government Scheme;
(v) Creating infrastructure for promotion of livestock such as, poultry shelter, goat shelter, piggery shelter, cattle shelter and fodder troughs for cattle; and
(vi) Creating infrastructure for promotion of fisheries such as, fish drying yards, storage facilities, and promotion of fisheries in seasonal water bodies on public land;
III. Category C: Common Infrastructure for NRLM Compliant Self-Help Groups
(i) Works for promoting agricultural productivity by creating durable infrastructure required for bio-fertilisers and post-harvest facilities including pucca storage facilities for agricultural produce; and
(ii) Common worksheds for livelihood activities of self-help groups.
IV. Category D: Rural Infrastructure
(i) Rural sanitation related works, such as, individual household latrines, school toilet units, Anganwadi toilets either independently or in convergence with schemes of other Government Departments to achieve ‘open defecation free’ status. and solid and liquid waste management as per prescribed norms;
(ii) Providing all-weather rural road connectivity to unconnected villages and to connect identified rural production centres to the existing pucca road network; and construction of pucca internal roads or streets including side drains and culverts within a village;
(iii) Construction of play fields;
(iv) Works for improving disaster preparedness or restoration of roads or restoration of other essential public infrastructure including flood control and protection works, providing drainage in water-logged areas, deepening and repairing of flood channels, chaur renovation, construction of storm water drains for coastal protection;
(v) Construction of buildings for Gram Panchayats, women self-help groups’ federations, cyclone shelters, anganwadi centres, village haats and crematoria at the village or block level;
(vi) Construction of Food Grain Storage Structures for implementing the provisions of The National Food Security Act 2013 (20 of 2013);
(vii) Production of building material required for construction works under the Act.
(viii) Maintenance of rural public assets created under the Act; and
(ix) Any other work which may be notified by the Central Government in consultation with the State Government in this regard.
87. What wage-material ratio needs to be maintained in the selection of works?
A. The cost of material component of projects including the wages of the skilled and semi-skilled workers taken up under scheme shall not exceed 40 per cent. 60:40 ratio for wage and material cost should be maintained at GP level for works executed by GP and for works executed by agencies other than GP, it should be maintained at block/intermediate panchayat level.
88. Can individual farmer’s land be developed under Mahatma Gandhi NREGS?
A. Yes, individual farmer’s land can be developed under Mahatma Gandhi NREGS.Works creating individual assets shall be prioritised on land or homestead owned by households belonging to the:
(a) Scheduled Castes
(b) Scheduled Tribes
(c) nomadic tribes
(d) denotified tribes
(e) other families below the poverty line
(f) women-headed households
(g) physically handicapped headed households
(h) beneficiaries of land reforms
(i) the beneficiaries under the Indira Awaas Yojana
(j) beneficiaries under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (2 of 2007) and,
After exhausting the eligible beneficiaries under the above categories, on lands of the small or marginal farmers as defined in the Agriculture Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 subject to the condition that such households shall have a job card with at least one member willing to work on the project undertaken on their land or homestead.
89. What are the conditions for development of individual farmer’s land under Mahatma Gandhi NREGA?
A. Individual farmer’s land that is to be developed under Mahatma Gandhi NREGA should be treated as a project with the following conditions.
- The individual land owner shall be a job card holder and also work in the project and the proposed activity should be part of annual shelf of projects.
- All projects to be executed under MGNREGA have to be approved by Gram Sabha.
- No contractor shall be involved in the execution of work.
- No labour displacing machinery shall be used in the execution of work.
- No labour displacing machinery shall be purchased / hired.
90. List out the mandatory details to be provided in the State Government proposal for introducing new category of work.
A. The proposal for introducing new category of work should contain the following:
a. Justification for the work.
b. Areas where the work will be undertaken.
c. Number of wage seekers to be employed (employment potential).
d. Nature of durable asset to be created.
e. Expectations from the work to strengthen the livelihood base of the rural poor.
f. Other benefits that may accrue such as continued employment opportunities, strengthening of the local economy and improving the quality of lives of people.
91. List out the details to be provided in the model project.
A. The model project should contain the following:
i. The unit cost of the work.
ii. The labour component.
iii. The material component.
iv. Skilled and semi-skilled component.
v. The transparency and accountability mechanisms.
vi. The expected final outcome (asset that will be created).
vii. The benefit to the livelihood base of the rural poor.
viii. Any other benefit likely to accrue.
92. Define negative works under MGNREGS?
A. The works which are not included in the list of permissible works and works which are non-tangible, not measurable, non-quantifiable, repetitive such as removing grass, pebbles, agricultural operation are not permitted.
93. List out the negative works?
A. i. Works which are non-tangible, not measurable, non-quantifible repetitive such as, removing grass, pebbles, agricultural operations, shall not be taken up.
ii. Works like boulder pebble or shrub removal silt application and similar activities are not as a stand-alone activities. However, these can be a part of tasks in projects for converting uncultivable/barren/fallow lands into cultivable lands through one time land development activities.
iii. Agriculture inputs and agriculture operations are not allowed. Removal of weeds and watering may be considered only for forestry plantation and horticulture limited for a duration of 2-3 years. This shold also be a part of the consolidated project to be assisted under MGNREGA.
iv. Expenditure incurred to finance non-permissible activities will be recovered from the person responsible for such expenses.
v. Execution of pilot activity under MGNREGA is discouraged. However, pilots using MGNREGA funds, involving only a few Panchayats could be taken up only upon approval of the Ministry.
vi. MGNREGS funds cannot be used for land acquisition.
vii. Specified criteria to be followed while executing dug wells under MGNREGA.
94. Mention the criteria to be adopted while executing digging of wells?
A. The criteria to be adopted while taking up digging of wells under MGNREGA are:
a. Bore wells and tube wells are not considered as a permissible activity.
b. Digging of private wells it not allowed in semi-critical or critical or over-exploited regions as per the assessment of central Government of Water Board’s (CGWB) latest assesment.
c. Only group wells are permitted in CGWB declared semi-critical or crital areas.
d. Formal agreement on stamp paper for sharing water between a group of farmers and group well beneficiaries would be required . The agreement needs to be verified by the GP concerned.
e. An individual farmer can be a member in a single group (not in many).
f. A group well should be registered as group irrigation well in revenue records.
g. Individual wells are permitted in CGWB declared safe zones subject to the relevant spacing between two such wells. Diameter should be within 8 m (hard areas) and 6 m (soft and alluvial areas).
95. Besides worksite facilities what are the other entitlements to Mahatma Gandhi NREGS workers?
A. As per Schedule II of Mahatma Gandhi NREGA the other entitlements to Mahatma Gandhi NREGS workers are:
- If any personal injury is caused to any person employed under the Scheme by any accident arising out of and in the course of his employment, he shall be entitled to such medical treatment as required, free of cost. (Para 25, Schedule II)
- Where hospitalisation of the injured worker is necessary, the State Government shall arrange for such hospitalisation including accommodation, treatment, medicines and payment of daily allowance which is not less than half of the wage rate. (Para 26, Schedule II)
- If a person employed under the Scheme meets with death or becomes permanently disabled by accident arising out of and in the course of employment, he or his legal heirs, as the case may be, shall be paid by the implementing agency an ex gratia as per entitlements under the Aam Aadmi BimaYojana or as may be notified by the Central Government. (Para 27, Schedule II)
- If any personal injury is caused by accident to a child accompanying a person who is employed under the Scheme, such person shall be entitled to medical treatment free of cost; and in case of death or disablement of the child due to the said accident, ex gratia shall be paid to the legal guardians as determined by the State Government. (Para 27, Schedule II).
96. Can the expenditure for tools and implements used for work be met under MGNREGA?
A. Yes. Initially, workers to be facilitated to bring their tools and implements. If not then these may be arranged by Panchayats/ SHGs. The expenses for this purpose can be booked under material expenditure.
97. Who approves the project proposal which covers more than one GP?
A. In case of proposals that cover more than one GP, it will require the approval of all panchayats concerned .
98. Who is empowered to select the implementing Agency?
A. The selection of the implementing Agency, other than the GP will be done by the DPC which is based on their technical expertise, capacity to handle work with the framework of MGNREGA.
99. List out the details to be recorded while generating e-muster?
A. For generating e-muster following details are required to be filled:
i) Panchayat name
ii) Work Code
iii) Date from………Date to………..
iv) Worker category (unskilled or skilled/ semi-skilled)
v) Number of workers in one muster roll
100. List out the details to be entered in NREGASoft while issuing the paper muster roll?
A. The fields required to be entered in NREGASoft for issuance of a paper muster roll are as below:
a. Panchayat name
b. Worker category (unskilled or skilled/semi-skilled)
c. Muster roll No. (from & to)
d. Work Code
e. Date of issuance (by Programme Officer)
f. Number of labour in muster roll
g. Received by whom
h. Date of the receipt
101. What is the motto of conducting project initiation meeting?
A. To inform workers about the provisions of the Act, the system of payment of wages, SoR, information on worksite facilities and their entitlements in the event of their injury by accidents or death or injury or death of any child accompanying the worker.
102. Who is authorised to take measurements?
A. Mate takes measurement at the end of the day and Technical Assistant measures the work every week or soon after closure of the muster roll. Junior Engineer check – measures the measurements recorded in the Measurement Book.
103. When can the work completion report be uploaded on the MGNREGASoft?
A. A physically completed work can be closed only after the check measurement engineer has thoroughly examined the work and records.
104. Who generates pay order?
A. Districts/blocks/GPs that do not use e-FMS, will need to generate pay orders. The equivalence of a pay order in e-FMS is a Fund Transfer Order (FTO) that the system generates upon feeding the requisite information.
105. Who authorises the pay order?
A. Pay orders are required to be authorised by GP or Programme Officer and then submitted to the wage paying agency along with the pay-cheque/advice.
106. What details need to be provided on the pay slip?
A. Individual pay slips or wage slips should have the details of wage payments like work ID, wage rate, number of days worked, amount earned by the worker during the week, number of mandays completed per HH and number of mandays of employment due to the households concerned etc.
107. Are the Mahatma Gandhi NREGS labourers entitled to any specific facilities at worksite?
A. Yes. Worksite facilities include safe drinking water, shade for children and periods of rest, first aid box with adequate material for emergency treatment for minor injuries and other health hazards connected with the work being performed (Para 23, schedule II). In case the number of children below the age of five years accompanying the women working at any site is five or more, provisions should be made to depute one of such women workers to look after such children. The most marginalised women in the locality, women in exploitative conditions or bonded labour or those vulnerable to being trafficked or liberated manual scavengers should be employed for providing child care services (Para 24, Schedule II).
108. What is wage rate for women employed for providing child care services?
A. The women so employed should be paid remuneration equivalant to the prevailing wage rate.
109. Who issues the muster rolls (MR) and how are they maintained at worksite?
A. As per Schedule I, Para 15, the muster rolls are to be maintained as given below:
- Every muster roll shall be signed by the authorised person of the Gram Panchayat or by the Programme Officer; and shall contain such mandatory information as may be specified by the Central Government;
- Each muster roll shall be in English or local language and have a unique identity number electronically generated by the computer system (e-Muster) along with the list of workers applied for work;
- Muster rolls shall be maintained at the worksite by marking attendance daily by a person authorised under the Scheme, details of which shall be made available in public view on a daily basis using the computer system;
- The muster roll shall be periodically checked by officials in the manner prescribed in the Scheme;
- The muster roll shall be closed on the last given day, countersigned by every worker who has worked, and shall be handed over to the technical personnel for measurement;
- A detailed record of muster rolls shall be maintained in the registers as specified from time to time;
- When a work is in progress, the workers engaged in that work may select from amongst themselves not less than five workers on a weekly rotational basis to verify and certify all the bills or vouchers of their worksite at least once in a week;
- Any person shall have access to muster rolls on the worksite on demand all days during all working hours.
PAYMENT OF WAGES
110. How are the payments of wages made to the wage seekers?
A. As per Para 30, Schedule II the payment of wages shall, unless so exempted by the Central Government, be made through the individual savings accounts of the workers in the relevant banks or post offices.
111. Who decides regarding opening of account in post office / bank?
A. The choice among different service providers (commercial/scheduled banks/ RRBs/post offices/ mobile banks) is left to the decision of the wage seekers as per their convenience.
112. Is there any authentic document required to open the wage seeker account?
A. MGNREGS Job Card, duly signed by the concerned officer is an officially valid document for opening a bank account under the Know Your Customer (KYC) norms.
113. Elaborate the abbreviations?
A. APB – Aadhaar Payment Bridge
AEPS – Aadhaar Enabled Payment System
PoS – Point of Sale
e-FMS – Electronic Fund Management System
CBS – Core Banking Solution
JBY – Janashree Bima Yojana
RSBY – Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana
114. In what circumstance, a GP can make cash payments?
A. In districts/blocks/GPs, where the penetration and network of banks and post offices is weak, PIAs may disburse wages in cash. However, this may be resorted to only with prior intimation to the Ministry and approval of the State Government who will be responsible for ensuring the requisite security for this purpose. Every effort must be made to video record the cash payment process.
115. Who constitutes the payment committee?
A. Payment Committee is to be constituted by the DPC by inviting nominations from concerned GP and PO.
116. List out the members of payment committee?
A. The Payment Committee should comprise the following:
a. GP Head/Sarpanch or Traditional Tribal Head (or Mukhiya in Scheduled Areas)
b. GP member from the ward where the works have been executed
c. Two women SHG members, (wherever applicable)
d. At least three MGNREGA workers from the GP, out of whom at least one should be a woman and at least one should be from SC/ST
e. School headmaster/teacher.
117. What is the schedule for the disbursement of wage?
A. As per Section 3(3) of the Act disbursement of daily wages shall be made on a weekly basis or in any case not later than a fortnight after the date on which such work was done.
118. Can different amount of wages be paid to men and women workers?
A. No. As per Para 31, Schedule II, there shall be no discrimination solely on the ground of gender and the provisions of the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 (25 of 1976), shall be complied with.
119. What are the key activities that are to be provided by State Government for use of e-FMS?
A. The following activities are to be provided by State Government for use of e-FMS:
a. Identification of Key Bank(s) by the State.
b. Signing up of an Agreement / MoU between the State and the Key Bank(s) to enable a seamless electronic payment mechanism.
c. Coordination with the selected Key Bank(s) for interfacing NREGASoft with the Bank’s Core Banking System.
d. Updation /verification and freezing of bank accounts of stakeholders.
e. Identification of payment levels and signatories (makers and checkers) at these levels.
f. Issuance of Digital Signatures to all signatories.
g. Training the signatories on usage of Digital Signatures for approving the payments.
h. Positioning adequate technical manpower at State / district for handholding support and troubleshooting.
120. Can the wage seeker be paid the wages immediately after closure of muster roll?
A. No. Wage payments are made after due verification of muster rolls, onsite physical measurement of works and valuation thereof.
121. Is there any compensation for delay in payment of wages?
A. Para 29, Schedule II of MGNREGA 2005 has laid down a detailed procedure for establishing a delay compensation system. As per the system, MGNREGA workers are entitled to receive delay compensation at a rate of 0.05 per cent of the unpaid wages per day for the duration of the delay beyond the sixteenth day of the closure of the MR.
122. Who will be responsible to pay the compensations?
A. The State Government shall be responsible for identifying various processes to be completed between the time muster is closed and wage payment if made and notifying the (a) process (b) functionary/agency responsible for completing the process and the (c) period for completing the process. These details are to be uploaded in NREGASoft so that the IT system automatically calculates the liability of each functionary/agency in case of a delayed payment.
It shall be the duty of such designated DPC or PO to (a) identify step-wise processes and subprocesses leading to determination and payment of wages (b) fix activity-wise maximum time limits and (c) allocate responsibilities to the functionary/agency in the discharge of their specific function as identified/fixed under the system.
123. What social security is provided for MGNREGS workers?
A. The two types of insurance provided under social security exclusively for MGNREGS workers are:
(i) Janashree Bima Yojana (JBY) and
(ii) Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY).
i) JBY provides life coverage and disability benefits to rural people.
ii) RSBY has been extended to all Mahatma Gandhi NREGA workers/ beneficiaries who have worked for more than 15 days in the preceding financial year.
STRATEGY FOR VULNERABLE GROUPS
124. Who constitutes Special Category of Workers (Vulnerable Groups) under MGNREGA?
A. The special category of workers are from:
i) Persons with disabilities
ii) Primitive Tribal Groups
iii) Nomadic Tribal Groups
iv) De-notified Tribes
v) Women in special circumstances
vi) Senior citizens above 65 years of age
vii) HIV positive persons
viii) Internally displaced persons
ix) Rehabilitated bonded labour
125. Who is responsible for formulating specific plans to include these special groups in MGNREGA?
A State Government. The strategy has to be different for different special categories. Volunteers may be identified and engaged for handholding support. These volunteers could also handhold the vulnerable persons during the initial period to remove problems.
126. What are the specific interventions needed for Vulnerable Groups?
A. The specific interventions are:
- As per Para 9(1) Schedule I, at least one work which is suitable for Particularly Vulnerable Groups especially the aged and the disabled shall be kept open at all times to provide work as per demand –
- Special drive through existing and exclusively identified resource persons to identify the vulnerable groups
- State Government should designate one officer as Coordinator (Vulnerable Groups) to exclusively look after the needs and requirements of these groups.
- Dissemination of information among Vulnerable Groups
- Specific works identified for these groups
- Provision within the MIS for tracking their coverage
- As per Para 1, Schedule II if the job seeker is a single woman or disabled person or aged person or released bonded labour or belonging to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group, they must be given a special job card of a distinct colour which will ensure them a special protection in providing work, work evaluation and worksite facilitates, as the case may be.
127. Who are Disabled Persons under MGNREGA?
A The disabled or differently-abled persons defined under the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 (1 of 1996) as persons with disabilities, the severity of which is 40 per cent and above would be considered as special category of vulnerable persons for the purposes of MGNREGA. The disabled persons as defined in the National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act, 1999 (44 of 1999) are also to be considered as disabled for the purpose of inclusion in MGNREGA.
128. What are the exclusive provisions for Disabled Persons in terms of accessing MGNREGS works?
A. The following are the exclusive measures for the promotion of the participation of the disabled persons: –
- Identification of suitable works
- Mobilisation of disabled persons by focussing on awareness and special provisions
- Specifically identified works for disabled persons in the case of large GPs
- Preference to appoint as mates and as workers for providing drinking water, to manage crèches etc., at the worksites
- Adoption of tools and equipment/facilities at work places
- Treating persons with disabilities with respect
- Special drive to ensure 100 days of employment to such households
- Provide special job card of a distinct colour
129. Who are Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) and what are the special provisions for them?
A Primitive Tribal Groups live in forest and hills are highly vulnerable to hunger/starvation, malnutrition and ill-health. Appropriate programme flexibility should be adopted by the State Governments to reach the benefit of MGNREGS to them.
130. What are the special provisions for De-Notified Tribes in terms of accessing MGNREGS works?
A DPC may estimate the number of nomadic tribes in the district and authorise the POs to issue special job cards, which will be honoured in any Gram Panchayat in the district. The nomadic tribes can take up work in any Gram Panchayat. Bank accounts should be opened for the nomadic tribes in a bank with core banking facility and an ATM/Debit Card.
131. Who constitutes Women in Special Circumstances category and what is exclusive attention on them?
A. Widowed, deserted and destitute women are highly vulnerable and require special attention. GP should initiate special measures to ensure 100 days employment for them. Special works which require less physical effort and are close to their house should be identified and implemented for them. As per Para 1, Schedule II, if the job seeker is a single woman or disabled or aged person or released bonded labour or belonging to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group, she must be given a special job card of a distinct colour which will ensure them a special protection in providing work, work evaluation and worksite facilitates.
132. What is specific attention and what are the provisions for Senior Citizens?
A. Exclusive senior citizen groups may be formed and special works which require lesser physical effort identified and allotted to these groups.
133. What is the specific attention and what are the provisions for Internally Displaced Persons?
A. The DPC concerned may issue a special job card indicating that they are internally displaced persons. This job card will be valid till these families are displaced and will lose its validity as soon as they return to their original place of residence.
134. Are any special works identified for differently abled persons working under MGNREGA?
If so, provide a few examples. A. Yes, several works are exclusively identified for differently abled persons. Further, suggestive works for category of differently abled persons are provided. A few of the works are:
i Drinking water arrangements
ii Sprinkling water on newly built wall
iii Farm bunding
iv Looking after children
135. List the different registers to be maintained under MGNREGA and at what level they need to be maintained?
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS)
136. What is the name of the web-enabled application the Central Government has developed and what are its chief advantages?
A. NREGASoft which is hosted at the portal accessible as http:// nrega.nic.in. The advantages of managing implementation of MGNREGA through NREGASoft are they enable capturing data in real-time (or near real time) from the field which helps in quick and easy analysis (which is also almost in real time). Based on the analysis, the system triggers alerts which provide opportunities to implementing and supervising authorities for timely corrective action.
137. Who are the stakeholders in the portal?
A. The portal (http://nrega.nic.in) provides a single point access to the following stakeholders:
iii. Gram Panchayats, Block Panchayats, Zilla Panchayats
iv. Programme officers
v. District Programme Coordinators
vi. Implementing agencies other than PRIs
vii. State RD Departments viii. Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India
ix. Bank & Post Offices
x. Social Audit Agencies
138. What are different modules available in this portal?
A. In this portal, modules are available for works, workers and fund management. The details are as follows:
- The portal encapsulates several modules that are required in different processes of implementation of MGNREGA. These have been classified as:
i. Core Modules and
ii. Support Modules.
“Core Modules” (“work”, “worker”, “funds”, “e-FMS” and “Labour Budget”) capture details that enable booking of expenditure in NREGASoft.
- Worker Management Module of the software captures registration, demand for work, work allocation and attendance recording in muster rolls.
- The software also has the provision to enable payment of wages through bank/post office as it captures the bank/post office account number, bank/post office name, branch name for all the persons who have demanded work.
- Works Management Module captures detailed information about the various works proposed or undertaken under the scheme at various levels.
- It facilitates online approval of projects and keeps track of time taken for approval of project. Each project is provided a unique ID and status of work is maintained in the system.
- Fund Management Module captures the funds transferred from MoRD/States to districts and then to programme officers/Panchayats and expenditure incurred by various implementing agencies on labour, material and contingency.
- e-FMS Module provides a platform for making e-payments to workers, staff and vendors (wages, material and administrative expenses) using the payment network of financial Institution (e.g. NEFT/ RTGS/ ECS/ Sanchay Post), thus addressing the issue of delay in payments to a larger extent and making the MIS real time transaction based.
- Labour Budget Module contains all required information for preparation of Labour Budget. It allows planning and preparing the labour budget for each Gram Panchayat.
- The module is so designed that it enables each GP to upload its labour budget which gets consolidated at every level from block up to the State level.
- Social Audit Module allows the Gram Panchayat to plan for the social audit and prepare social audit calendar. It has features to upload issues/ Grievances that rose during the social audit as well as the minutes of meetings. Observations of the documents verified during the social audit are also captured through this module.
- Cost Estimation Module makes detailed estimates of the works proposed or taken up under MGNREGA e.g. construction of Tank, Well, Sluice Gate, Earthen road, Cement concrete road etc.
- Grievance Redressal System allows a worker/citizen to lodge complaint and trace the subsequent response.
- Staffing Position Module captures name and contact details of all the officials, planning and implementing agencies from Gram Panchayat to Ministry of Rural Development involved in MGNREGA.
- Knowledge Network/ Solution Exchange provides a common platform to all stakeholders to exchange their views, pose queries to other stakeholder/experts and get responses, exhibit their best practices.
139. What are different data entry (cross) checks built in this portal?
A. NREGASoft has certain in-built checks like:
- Only adults (age 18 and above) can register under MGNREGA.
- The system does not allow allocation of employment for more than 100 days in a year to a household. (however this check can be relaxed if a State is so willing)
- Work allocation cannot be done without demand.
- E-MR can be generated after work allocation only.
- Households are eligible for unemployment allowances if employment has not been provided after 15 days of demand.
- MR will be issued for a period within FY only and cannot spill over to next year.
- Two or more MRs of a work can either be for same period or for disjointed period only.
- Payment date cannot be entered if at least equal amount of funds are not available with paying authority.
- Fund transferred from one level should first be received by the other level for further fund utilisation or transfer to other levels.
- Work will be treated as approved only after technical and administrative sanction has been accorded and all details are entered in MIS.
- Measurement Book can be filled only for those activities which are included in technical estimate of work and approved by appropriate authority.
- Only that material can be booked for a work in bill/ vouchers which is entered in technical estimate of work.
- No expenditure can be booked against a work after it is shown as completed in MIS.
- Job card number of the owner of the private land or homestead on which work is taken-up, must be entered along with work details.
- Wage paid cannot be more than MGNREGA notified wage rate.
- A worker cannot be provided employment on different works for same period.
140. What are off- line and on-line versions available in the software?
A. Online (default mode): In online mode, the machine on which data are being fed is connected to NREGASoft.
Offline mode: For using the offline version, NREGASoft is to be downloaded on the machine from a point where internet is available. This version (offline version) is complete in itself. It is a standalone system and all reports can be generated and viewed. Data entry is done in the offline version. Online feeding of data is the better of the two options and is therefore, the default option. Offline feeding is an exception and will be permitted by the Ministry only if reliable internet connectivity is not made available at the block level.
141. What is the methodology for arriving at the labour budget estimate?
A. The LB estimate under MGNREGA is based on the amount of total cost (viz. cost towards wage, material and administrative costs) to be incurred while generating a personday wage employment. The expenditure per personday generation of wage employment shall have wage and material costs in the proportion of 60:40. For example, if the cost of the project is ` 100, the wage expenditure is at least ` 60 and the material expenditure is at most ` 40. Further, a maximum of ` 6 can be utilised towards administrative expenses over and above the wage and material expenses.
142. What is the procedure followed for approval of labour budget?
A. LBs should be submitted to the Government of India latest by December 31st each year for the subsequent financial year. State Secretaries in charge of Rural Development should ensure timely submission of LBs for all districts in their States, to avoid delay in fund release. For this, it is important that the States/districts follow timelines as prescribed in the Operational guidelines of MGNREGS.
LBs received online will be examined in the Ministry and issues, if any, will be communicated to the State for clarification/review. The States will respond to the issues raised so that the LB approval process is initiated.
An Empowered Committee, under the chairmanship of Secretary, Ministry of Rural Development, will assess and approve the State-specific LBs in consultation with the State Secretaries in charge of Rural Development. The Empowered Committee will arrive at a decision on the persondays to be sanctioned based on expected employment generation.
143. Can the approved Labour Budget be revised?
A. Yes. Since LB is an estimation and MGNREGA is a demand-driven programme, the States/UTs may, based on actual performance, any time during the year, come back to the Ministry requesting revision of their existing LB. The procedure prescribed for preparation of LB shall also apply for preparation of revised LB.
144. What is State Employment Guarantee Fund (SEGF)?
A. Sub-section 1 of Section 21 of MGNREGA provides for the establishment of State Employment Guarantee Fund (SEGF) (also referred to as “State Fund”) for the purpose of implementation of the scheme in an implementing State. The SEGF has an in-built capacity to track the usage of funds down to the GPs. The central share of MGNREGA funds are released to SEGF for onward allocation of funds to the districts/ Panchayats/ Programme Implementing Agencies (PIAs) of the respective State. The salient features of SEGF are as below:
- SEGF funds shall be utilised in accordance with the provisions of the Act and Rules framed thereunder by the Central Government and instructions issued by Ministry of Rural Development from time to time.
- SEGF pools resources from Centre (Central Share) and State (State Share) and cause its deployment within the districts as per their fund requirements. Interest accruing on account of MGNREGA funds should be a part of the SEGF and shall be spent only in accordance with instructions of the Central Government.
- The SEGF shall ensure district-wise effective fund management under MGNREGA. The agency designated for fund management in a State should have a status different from the State Government. Generally, the State Funds are managed by self-regulating Societies registered under the Societies Registration Act.
145. What are specific advantages of online submission of proposals for release of funds?
- Online submission of proposals ensures proper and mandatory e-documentation and reduces frequent communications between the States and the Ministry on their comprehensive compliance.
- It (NREGASoft) enables the Ministry to examine through the system, various physical and financial performance parameters from the data entered by States/districts. Alerts are automatically sent to States/districts for non-compliance or part compliance of mandatory prerequisites and documents.
146. What is Expenditure based fund release system?
A. The expenditure based fund release system ensures that the fund flows are streamlined in such a way that every State is assured of funds for implementation of the Act at all times.
147. What are the main features of Expenditure based fund release system?
A. The main features of the EFRS are:
a) Sanction Orders (funds sanctioned for release by the Centre taking into account the approved Labour Budget and the Opening Balance of the State) would be issued twice a year i.e. on April 1st and November 1st each year.
b) For each State, a level of Minimum Fund Assured (MFA), [which is a 14-day average expenditure arrived at after due historical and seasonal considerations] would be worked out. Funds available at SEGF would be maintained at this level all the time.
c) As and when MFA is breached, further releases would be made electronically and within 24 hours to replenish the SEGF so that the fund is maintained at the level of MFA.
d) NREGASoft generates a daily statement showing the current amount in the SEGF vis-à-vis the MFA.
148. Under EFRS what conditions States have to confirm?
A. Under EFRS States have to confirm the following:
a) No amount would be parked in any account other than SEGF/e-FMS accounts at the State level as designated by the State.
b) No release will be made from the SEGF/e-FMS account except as per an electronic Fund Transfer Order (FTO).
c) Bank accounts holding MGNREGA resources shall be reconciled at regular intervals
149. What is administrative expenditure under MGNREGA?
- To enable the States/UTs in augmenting human resources and developing capacity for critical activities Central Government provides up to 6 per cent of the total expenditure on MGNREGA in a FY as administrative expenses. This Central financial assistance is provided to States/ UTs under section 22 (1) (c) of the MGNREGA. State governments are advised to supplement this, if required, for effective implementation of the Provisions of MGNREGA.
- The 6 per cent cap on administrative expenses operates at the State level and at least onethird of this 6 per cent should be utilised at the Gram Panchayat level to employ and pay the Gram Rozgar Sahayak, other technical personnel as per the work done and for other administrative expenses.
- For accounting convenience, the administrative expenses portion may be kept in a separate bank account at State, district or block levels.
150. What are the permissible activities under administrative expenditure?
A. i) Training: Development of training modules and materials, organisation of training programmes for officials, PRIs and Village Monitoring Committee members, training need assessment, impact assessment of training programmes, exposure visits etc.
ii) Information Education Communication (IEC) activities: Preparation and dissemination of IEC material, community mobilisation, use of media and local cultural forms, household contact programmes etc.
iii) MIS: Collection of data and its e-processing, report generation and transmission.
iv) Quality Management: Deployment of quality monitors at State, district and block level and associated expenses of training for quality.
v) Setting up of grievance redress system: Setting up of helplines, recruitment of ombudsmen and disposal of grievances.
vi) Professional/technical services: Hiring or engaging professional services for smooth operation of IEC, Training, MIS, monitoring and supervision and grievance redressal system.
vii) Operational expenses: Office expenses related to the implementation of MGNREGA and stationery pertaining to computational processes/MIS, transportation and conveyance charges.
viii) ICT facilities in GPs: Provision of latest ICT facilities in the Bharat Nirman Rajiv Gandhi Sewa Kendras (BNRGSK) at GP level.
ix) Additional Staff deployment: Expenses incurred on additional dedicated staff to MGNREGA in key functional areas of the scheme and at the GP/block/district levels as per guidelines issued by the Ministry of Rural Development from time to time.
x) Social Audits: Expenditure incurred towards organising social audits.
xi) Worksite Facilities: Charges towards worksite facilities viz. drinking water, aaya, shade for children and periods of rest and first aid box with adequate material for emergency treatment for minor injury and health hazards in connection with the works performed under the Act.
xii) Evaluation and Research: Conduct of relevant studies including evaluation studies and action research.
xiii) Contingency Expenditure: The following activities can be booked under the contingency expenditure head:
a. Ex-gratia Payment: Payment made to an MGNREGA worker in case of death or permanent disability due to accident while working under the programme.
b. Medical Treatment: Charges towards medical treatment to a worker in case of personal injury during the course of his/her employment under the scheme. 58 FAQs MGNREGA
c. Hospitalisation: Expenditure towards hospitalisation viz. accommodation, treatment, medicines and payment of daily allowance not less than half of the wage rate, in case hospitalisation of an injured worker becomes necessary for a person who gets injured during the course of his/her employment on MGNREGA works.
151. What are the expenses not allowed under administrative costs?
A. The following items are not allowed under the administrative costs of MGNREGA:
a. Purchase of vehicles and repair of old vehicles.
b. Civil works.
c. Salaries/ remuneration of functionaries already engaged by the Government/ PRIs/ any other implementing agency.
d. Material procurement for works.
152. What is Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for stoppage of funds under section 27 (2) of MGNREGA?
As per the provisions in Section 27(2) of MGNREGA, the Central Government may, on receipt of any complaint regarding lack of effective implementation of the provisions of the Act or regarding the improper utilisation of funds granted under this Act, order an investigation into the complaint and if necessary, shall order stoppage of release of funds to the scheme if no appropriate remedial measures are instituted for proper implementation within a reasonable period of time as defined by the Central Government.
153. What are the types of complaints under MGNREGA?
A. The complaints received in the Ministry are broadly on the following issues:
- Non-involvement of Gram Sabha in selection of works
- Non-issuance of Job Cards
- Denial of application for registration
- Non-availability of worksite facilities like crèche, drinking water, first aid box etc.
- Non-payment of Unemployment Allowance
- Not providing works within the time-frame
- Social audits not being conducted
- Delay in payment of wages under MGNREGA Irregularities in selection of beneficiaries
- Delay in completion of projects
- Financial irregularities
- Purchase of material without following prescribed procedure
- Embezzlement /Misappropriation of funds
- Use of Machinery
- Involvement of contractors
- Forging of muster rolls
- Execution of inadmissible works.
154. Is there any provision for extension of time for submission of ATRs?
- For any category of complaint, if the State fails to submit an ATR within the prescribed time period, the Ministry shall issue a reminder with a grace period of another two weeks time with a caution that non-submission of ATR will lead to invoking Section 27(2) of the Act for stoppage of funds.
- If required, State Government can request for reasonable additional time with justification. Consideration for providing additional time shall be undertaken by a Committee under the Chairmanship of Additional Secretary, comprising the following officers as members from the Ministry:
JS (RE-I)/ JS(RE -II) – Member
CCA – Member
Concerned Director in the division – Convener
- The Convener will prepare a gist of complaints along with the justification given by the State for seeking additional time. Based on the seriousness of the complaint and the explanation offered by the State, the Committee may decide to give additional time to the State for submitting the ATR.
155. Receipt and Review of Action Taken Report
- The same committee will review the ATRs received from the States. The Convenor will place before the committee, gist of the complaint, the ATR, findings of NLMs / Central team if any and the action taken by the State thereon.
- The Committee will look into enquiry report and ATR and satisfy itself about appropriateness of the action taken on the complaints. The Committee may also invite the concerned State/district officers to present its case before the Committee, if need be in case of category (iv) involving misutilisation or financial irregularities.
156. What action is expected of States for a satisfactory ATR?
- State Government to issue necessary instructions/ guidelines to correct the deficiency observed. Take appropriate administrative action against those found to be violating the provisions of the Act / Guidelines.
- With regard to the complaints relating to financial irregularities, generally, the following action should be taken for an acceptable ATR:
i) Lodging FIR against the delinquent officer(s) in case, prima facie, a criminal intent is apparent and
ii) Formal initiation of departmental enquiry and
iii) Recovery of the amount found misappropriated.
For Elected Representatives:
i) Proceedings for disqualification/ termination / recovery initiated under the State PR Act and
ii) Recovery should be ordered through a formal recovery certificate or a written order if, following a due process, recovery is due.
157. What are the consequences of not submitting satisfactory or timely ATRs?
- If the State fails to respond with a satisfactory ATR or within the specified time, the Committee may recommend remedial action including stoppage of funds under Section 27(2) of the Act.
- Where the matter is of a serious nature, it could recommend CBI enquiry. Entrusting investigation to CBI would require consent of the State Government concerned under Section 6 of the Delhi Special Police Establishment (DPSE) Act, 1946.
- The State Government should take appropriate action on the matter and submit to the Ministry the Compliance Report within three weeks.
- The Compliance Report received from the State Government will again be placed before the Committee. If the Committee feels that the action taken by the State is satisfactory, then the Committee may recommend for release of full amount due to the State/district. In case of unsatisfactory compliance of the recommendations/ action, the Committee may continue to recommend stoppage of funds till a satisfactory ‘cure’ is commenced.
- In case ATRs are not received timely or are not satisfactory an Institutional NLM(s) may be deputed with the approval of Additional Secretary / Secretary, Ministry of Rural Development to enquire into the matter and submitting a report to the Ministry within a period of one month.
- In case of financial loss, the quantum of loss shall be treated as additional State liability (in addition to the due share as per Section 22). Upon recovery of misutilised amounts, the same will be deposited in SEGF (or in the MGNREGA fund at district level if the State has no SEGF) and States’ liability accordingly adjusted.
158. What kind of complaint cells are to be established by States?
A. The State Governments should establish a complaint cell, under the direct charge of Secretary, rural development in the State, for looking into all the complaints related to MGNREGA. The complaint cell may either be for complaints specifically related to MGNREGA or it may be the same as for complaints related to other programmes / Schemes of Ministry of Rural Development.
159. What procedures are to be followed for financial audit of MGNREGS accounts?
A. MGNREGA accounts at the district level and those of the SEGF are to be audited by CA/ CA firms annually, who are expected to do a check of the receipts and payment statements of the GPs. The GP accounts are to be normally internally audited by officials at the block level and later by the Local Fund Auditors (nomenclature varies from State to State).
160. What is the role of CA?
- Comment on the quality of accounts and financial statements.
- Identify and list gaps/ deficiencies and weak areas in systems and controls and make recommendations for improving these.
- Comment on the wage- material ratio on works taken up by the GP.
- Certify whether MGNREGA funds have been deployed only on admissible activities/works or otherwise.
- Comment on other matters which may have a significant impact on implementation of MGNREGA. An indicative checklist for this purpose is given at annexure in the MGNREGA Operational Guidelines.
161. What is the procedure for compilation and reporting of the certified Accounts?
- The CA will submit to the PO, a report for each GP visited, enclosing a certificate (in the format at annexure of MGNREGA Operational Guidelines) within 15 days of completion of certification of accounts of the GP. The report should contain the records verified, discrepancies noticed if any, adequacy of documentation and findings on the items listed in the checklist.
- A consolidated summary for all GPs taken up for certification and assigned to the CA within a district, will be submitted to the DPC within 15 days of completion of certification for all such GPs. In the consolidated summary the CA firm will indicate the GPs visited including the dates of the visit. In this report, issues which require immediate attention of the DPC should be highlighted. In addition adverse observations and suggestion for improvement will also be indicated in the report.
- During the course of certification, if the CA notices any defalcation or misappropriation of funds, it shall be immediately brought to the notice of the DPC who would proceed to take necessary action.
- District-wise summary of observations made by CAs will also be included as an annexure to the audit report of the State Employment Guarantee Fund.
- While auditing the MGNREGA funds at the district level, the auditor will take into account the certification and observation of the CAs made on GP accounts.
- The Secretary/ Commissioner, MGNREGA at the State level and the DPCs at the district level would be responsible to ensure that the accounts of selected GPs are certified by the empanelled CAs within a given time-frame.
- DPC will submit to the State Govt. an Action Taken Report (ATR) on the observations of the CA and likewise, the State Government will submit a consolidated ATR to MoRD.
- This certification, observations and the Action taken reports will be examined by the Ministry while releasing funds to the State Government.
162. What is the tenure of selected CA?
A. The period of assignment of CAs will be not more than two years. The assignment for the second year will be renewed only upon satisfactory performance in the first year.
163. How many CA(s) is (are) to be appointed for one district?
A. Preferably one CA is to be be selected and appointed for each district. In case the State Government is of the view that it is not feasible for one CA to certify accounts of all GPs selected in a district, more than one CA may be appointed.
164. Can one CA be assigned more than one district?
A. A CA may be assigned more than one district if adequate number of CAs are not available on the panel in any State/ district.
165. Who is responsible for monitoring the certification process and follow-up?
A. The Principal Secretary, RD/ State Commissioner, MGNREGA and the DPC shall be responsible for
(i) monitoring the progress of the certification (ii) taking corrective action (iii) submitting ATRs to concerned authority.
- In addition, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, or any person appointed by him on his behalf, shall conduct audit of the accounts of schemes at such intervals as he may deem fit.
- The accounts of the grantee institution will also be audited by the internal Audit of the Principal Accounts Office of the Ministry.
TRANSPARENCY, ACCOUNTABILITY, SOCIAL AUDIT, VIGILANCE AND GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL
166. What is social audit?
A. Social Audit is the critical stock taking of any programme or scheme by the community with active involvement of the primary stakeholders. It includes audit of the quality of works being executed at different levels along with the details of disbursements made, the number of labourers employed and materials used. The people in coordination with local administration will conduct social audit.
167. What is the objective of Social Audit?
A. The basic objective of social audit is to ensure public accountability in the implementation of projects, laws and policies.
168. What is the frequency of conduct of Social Audits?
A. As per Para 25(c) of Schedule I social audit should be conducted at least once in every six months As per Para 25(b) of Schedule I, concurrent social audit shall be done for all works every month.
169. Who does the Social Audit Facilitation?
A. As per Rule 4 of Audit of Schemes Rules, 2011, “Social Audit Unit” (SAU) shall facilitates conduct of the Social Audit of MGNREGS works. Social Audit Unit shall identify train and deploy appropriate number of State Resource Persons (SRP), District Resource Persons (DRP), Block Resource Persons (BRP) and Village Resource Persons (VRP), to facilitate the Gram Sabha in conducting social audit.
170. What is the process of conducting social audit?
- The Social Audit Unit shall frame an annual calendar and a copy of the calendar shall be sent to all the DPCs for making necessary arrangements.
- The labourers and the village community shall be informed about the Gram Sabha conducting social audit.
- The Social Audit Team shall be provided by the PO, all the required information and records of all implementing agencies.
- The resource persons deployed by Social Audit Unit, along with primary stakeholders shall verify all the documents, physically verify the works.
- A social audit Gram Sabha shall be convened to discuss the findings of the verification. The Gram Sabha shall also provide a platform to all villagers to seek and obtain further information.
- All the officials responsible for implementation must be present in the meeting to answer queries from the members of the Gram Sabha.
- The DPC or his authorised representative shall supervise the Gram Sabha meeting.
- The action taken report relating to the previous social audit shall be read out at the beginning of the meeting of each social audit Gram Sabha.
- During the Social Audit all issues must be recorded in writing and evidence should be gathered. The entire proceeding of the Social Audit Gram Sabha shall be video recorded, and uploaded on website. The social audit reports shall be prepared in local language by the Social Audit Unit and must be displayed on the notice board of the Gram Panchayat for at least seven days.
- All social audit reports will contain a list of grievances that require redressal and a separate list of social audit findings that require criminal investigation.
- The Action Taken Report on the issues raised in the Gram Sabha shall be given to the Social Audit Unit and to the individuals whose grievance have been recorded in the report.
171. What are the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders in the conduct of social audit?
- Programme Officer shall ensure that all the required information and records of all implementing agencies are properly collated in the requisite formats; and provided along with photocopies to the Social Audit Unit for facilitating conduct of social audit at least fifteen days in advance of the scheduled date of meeting of the GS.
- District Programme Coordinator (DPC) shall ensure that all records for conduct of social audit are furnished to the Social Audit Unit by PO. Ensure that time-bound corrective action (including initiating criminal and civil proceedings or termination of services) is taken on the social audit report. Take steps to recover the amount improperly utilised and issue receipts or acknowledgements for amount so recovered.
- The Social Audit Unit shall be responsible for deploying suitable resource persons at village, block, district and State level.
- Shall identify, train and deploy suitable resource persons at village, block, district and State level drawing from primary stakeholders and other civil society organisations having knowledge and experience of working for the rights of the people.
- The Social Audit Unit will create awareness amongst the labourers about their rights and entitlements under the Act, and facilitate verification of records with primary stakeholders and worksites.
- Trained resource persons should be identified and they in turn train the village community in carrying out the verification process.
- The Social Audit Unit shall be responsible to prepare social audit reporting formats, resource material, guidelines and manuals for the social audit process.
- Facilitate verification of records with primary stakeholders and conduct door-to-door visits to meet beneficiaries of the MGNREGS and also physically verify the project sites and come out with detailed report.
- Social Audit Unit will be responsible to host the social audit reports including action taken reports in the public domain.
The State Government shall be responsible for follow-up action on the findings of the social audit.
State Employment Guarantee Council (SEGC) shall monitor the action taken by the State Government and incorporate the Action Taken Report in the annual report to be laid before the State Legislature by the State Government.
Central Government provides funds to meet the cost of establishing the Social Audit Unit. Cost of conducting social audit shall be met from administrative expenses.
Central Employment Guarantee Council (CEGC) shall monitor implementation of MGNREG Audit of Scheme Rules, 2011 and action taken on social audit reports and report the same in the Annual Report to be laid before the Parliament.
172. What should be the structure of vigilance mechanism?
A. All States should make arrangement for a three-tier vigilance mechanism:
i. State: At the State level, a Vigilance Cell consisting of a Chief Vigilance Officer (CVO) should be set up. The CVO may be a senior government officer or a retired officer supported by at least two senior officials (serving or retired), one Civil Engineer and an Auditor.
ii. District: At the district level, a Vigilance Cell will be set up. The cell will be headed by a district level officer and supported by an Engineer and an Auditor (of appropriate seniority). Engineer and Auditor may also be hired/appointed on contract.
iii. Local level (village): At the local level, Vigilance and Monitoring Committee should consist of about ten members half of whom shall be women with representation for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population. Members of the Vigilance and Monitoring Committee may be identified from among local school teachers, anganwadi workers, SelfHelp Group members, Social Audit volunteers, members of various Community Based Organisations, user groups, youth clubs etc. The Vigilance and Monitoring Committee team should be appointed/nominated/elected by the Gram Sabha for a period of 6 months but not exceeding one year. The State Government may consider providing an honorarium to the members of the Vigilance and Monitoring Committee for the period of time that they are required to give every month.
173. What are the functions of State level vigilance cell?
A. The main functions of this cell will be to receive complaints and get it verified, conduct regular field visits to detect irregularities, take suo motu action on reports appearing in the media, review the inspection system, transparency arrangements and functioning of the field and district level vigilance system, initiate recoveries of amounts through the Public Accountants Act in the case of officials and Revenue Recovery Act in the case of others, recommend initiation of disciplinary action against the officials found guilty and frame charges if the reply to the initial memo is unsatisfactory, develop a plan of action for the functioning of the vigilance mechanisms in respect of MGNREGS and send an annual report to State Employment Guarantee Council with suggestions on controlling irregularities and malfeasance.
State Government should empower the Vigilance Cell to initiate disciplinary action, frame charges and then transfer to the disciplinary authority concerned and monitor follow-up action in respect of recoveries, disciplinary action; criminal proceedings.
174. What are the functions of District level vigilance cell?
A. The District Vigilance Cell will carry out the directions of the State Vigilance Cell. Perform inspections and take follow-up actions for recovery, disciplinary action and filing of criminal cases in respect of non-officials and officials whose disciplinary authority is at the district level. Oversee the functioning of Vigilance and Monitoring Committees at the local level.
175. What are the functions of Local level vigilance cell?
A. It should act as a forum for concurrent social audit. Its report should be placed at the meeting of the Gram Sabha and also in the public domain. It should be provided an Action Taken Report from the Programme Officer.
176. What is Pro-active disclosure under MGNREGS?
A. As per Para 25(a), Schdeule I, mandatory proactive disclosure of basic information to all common people and stakeholders using a ‘Janata Information System’ should consist of following:
(1) Display at each worksite the ‘Janata’ estimate of the work – showing the details of the work, estimated labour days, quantities of materials to be used in local terminology and item-wise cost of the estimate.
(2) Display on prominent walls or public boards in the village: job cards list, number of days of work provided and the wages paid to each job card holder; and entitlements provided under the Act.
(3) Display through boards at the Gram Panchayat Office: shelf of projects approved, year-wise works taken up or completed by Gram Panchayats and Line Departments, employment provided, funds received and expenditure, list of materials with quantities used in each work, rates at which the material was procured.
(4) Display on the website: The Ministry of Rural Development and the State Departments of Rural Development shall ensure that their websites are updated to fully comply with all the seventeen provisions of Section 4 (1) (b) of the Right to Information Act (22 of 2005) and all information about the Act is available in public domain, through free downloadable electronic form.
177. What are the procedures to be adopted for grievance redressal in MGNREGS?
- As per Para 35, Schedule II every worker should have an opportunity of being heard and register any grievance either orally or in writing, at all implementation levels for disposal as per the provisions of the Grievance Redressal Mechanism under the Scheme.
- In compliance with Section 19 of MGNREGA, the State Governments shall, by rules, determine appropriate grievance redressal mechanisms at the Block level and the district level. The time lines for redressal of grievances should be consistent with the provisions of “Public Service Delivery Act” of the State, if any. If such an act does not exist, the timelines should be incorporated in the Grievance Redressal Rules.
- Multiple modes to be included for registering the complainants like written complaints and through telephone help lines etc. All such complaints must be duly acknowledged with a dated receipt. Complaint boxes at the offices of the Programme Officers and District Programme Coordinators must be installed to facilitate submission of complaints. The complaint boxes shall be opened on a fixed date every week and record the list of all complaints received. This date will be considered the date of receipt of complaints for purpose of this Act. As specified in section 23(6) the Programme Officer shall dispose of all such complaints within a period of seven days including the redressal of the grievance and the delivery of the entitlement. Failure to dispose of a complaint in 7 days will be considered a contravention of the Act by the Programme Officer, punishable under Section 25. Whoever contravenes the provisions of this Act shall on conviction be liable to a fine which may extend to Rs.1000.
- Complaints shall be entered in the complaint register and disposed within the statutory time limit. The complainants must also be informed of the action taken in writing through registered post with acknowledgement card. A system of appeal must be considered. State wide publicity must be made for grievance redressal at all levels. Monthly Reports on complaints received and disposed must be sent from Gram Panchayat to Programme Officer to District Programme Coordinator to State to Government of India. This should be placed on the website.
178. What is Ombudsman?
A. The word ‘ombudsman’ derives from the Swedish word umbadsman which in turn is based on the Old Norse “umboosmaor” meaning representative. An Ombudsman is one who advocates for fairness, equity and administrative efficiency.
179. Who selects Ombudsman and what is the process?
A. On recommendation of Selection Committee comprising Additional Chief Secretary of the State (Chairperson), Representative of Union Ministry of Rural Development, eminent Civil Society Person nominated by Union Ministry of Rural Development and Principal Secretary / Secretary of Department dealing with Mahatma Gandhi NREGA (Member Convener), State Government appoints ombudsman.
The Selection Committee shall prepare a panel of suitable persons who shall be considered for appointment as ombudsman. The panel of names suggested will be put up in the public domain and comments/suggestions will be invited. No person who is a member of a political party shall be considered for appointment as ombudsman.
Quorum for the meeting of the Selection Committee shall be considered fulfilled only if either the representative of the Ministry of Rural Development or the representative of Civil Society Organisation is present in the meeting.
180. What are the eligibility criteria for a person to be selected as ombudsman?
Persons of eminent standing and impeccable integrity with atleast twenty years of experience in public administration, law, academics, social work or management are eligible for being selected as ombudsman.
181. What is the Tenure of ombudsman?
Two years extendable not more than twice by one year each based on a performance appraisal process or till the incumbent attains the age of 68 years of age, whichever is earlier. There shall be no reappointment.
182. What are the powers of ombudsman?
A. i) Receive complaints from Mahatma Gandhi NREGA workers and others on specified matters, consider such complaints and facilitate their disposal in accordance with law.
ii) Issue direction for conducting spot investigation.
iii) Initiate proceedings suo motu in the event of any need arising within his jurisdiction that may cause any grievance.
iv) Engage experts for facilitating the disposal of the complaint.
v) Suggest redressal, disciplinary and corrective actions.
vi) Report findings to the District Programme Coordinator (DPC) of the district and the Secretary, State Nodal Department.
183. What are the duties of ombudsman?
- Ombudsman will be responsible for proper processing of complaints and grievances made or reported to him/her.
- Ombudsman will furnish a report every year containing a general review of activities of the office of the Ombudsman during the preceding financial year to the Chief Secretary (CS) and the Secretary, State Nodal Department along with such other information as may be considered necessary by him/her.
- Ombudsman will compile a list of ‘awards’ between April and March of each financial year in respect of very MGNREGA Authority complained against and report it to the Chief Secretary of the State and the State Nodal Department. Text of awards shall also be displayed on the MGNREGA website by the State Nodal Department
QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF MGNREGA WORKS
184. What are the objectives of Quality Management?
A. The two major objectives of Quality Management are:
i) To ensure that the created assets achieve the objectives of the Act. This implies that the functionality of the asset in terms of location, design, operational management and maintenance is adequate; and
ii) To ensure that the asset is durable, that it is constructed confirming to sound engineering standards in terms of design, materials and workmanship.
185. What aspects are covered under quality management?
A. The issues relating to works execution covered under quality management are; project selection, site selection, survey, project design estimates, work execution, supervision etc.
186. What are the three distinct aspects of quality management?
A. The three distinct aspects of Quality Management are:
i Quality control at site;
ii Quality supervision; and
iii Quality monitoring.
187. What are the functions of SQMs?
A. The major functions of State Quality Monitors are:
- Prepare a visit plan, based on the list of works/ sites finalised by Director (QM), required to be visited by the SQM.
- Visit the site for inspection on the appointed date.
- Prepare visit report work-wise, the framework/chapter-plan/core tables and format for which would be made available by Director (QM). This report should include immediate counter measures required to be taken to rectify/ correct deficiencies identified as a result of the inspection.
- At the end of every three months period, a consolidated report for the district shall be prepared by the SQM and submitted to State Government through Director (QM).This report will also contain a deployment strategy for the suggested measures. A summary of the report shall also be made by the SQM bringing out the Action Points.
- The Director (QM) shall take corrective measures through the DPC and shall publish the SQM-wise list of works visited and Action Points emerging on the NREGA website.
- The Director (QM) shall monitor the corrective action and shall upload the action taken status quarterly till such time that action is complete.
- Action taken by the State Government on the reports and suggestions of SQMs will be reviewed by the SEGC and will also be a part of the agenda item for discussion for labour budget.
188. Who will bear the cost of quality management?
A. The cost of NLMs will be borne by the Ministry, SQMs will be paid remuneration and allowances as decided by the State. The expenses on SQMU will be borne out of funds provided by Central Government to meet administrative expenses for MGNREGA.
189. What are the types of external monitors for quality monitoring of MGNREGS works?
There are two types of external monitors allocated for Quality Monitoring viz.,
i The National level Monitors (NLMs) empanelled by the Ministry and
ii State Quality Monitoring Unit comprising State Quality Monitors (SQM) for each district in the State.
190. Who can be nominated as Director (Quality Monitor)?
A. A Nodal Officer of the rank of at least Superintending Engineer, to be designated as Director (QM), who will coordinate the work of all SQMs in the State. The Director (QM) should be independent of implementation machinery
FRAMEWORK FOR CONVERGENCE BETWEEN MGNREGA AND OTHER PROGRAMMES
191. What types of convergence are permissible under MGNREGS?
A. The five main types of convergence permissible under MGNREGS are:
i. Funds may be made available from other schemes, to meet cost of an identifiable part of the project that could result in enhanced durability of assets created / proposed using MGNREGA funds.
ii. Funds may be made available from other schemes as livelihood component for putting to use for livelihood, assets created/ proposed using MGNREGA funds.
iii. To provide for technical inputs from concerned departmental officials
iv. Gap filling, meaning pooling together funds of MGNREGA and other schemes and deploying pooled funds for creation of an asset.
v. A combination of two or more of the above modes is also possible.
192. What are the possible Centrally Sponsored Schemes that can be converged under MGNREGS?
A. The Schemes that can be converged are
i. Central / State Finance Commission Grants
ii. National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM)
iii. Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP)
iv. Total Sanitation Programme (TSC) / Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan
v. Backward Region Grant Fund (BRGF)
vi. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)
vii. RRR (Ministry of Water Resources)
viii. National Afforestation Programme (NAP)
ix. Pradhan Mantri Gramin Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)
x. National Horticulture Mission (NHM)
xi. Scheme funded from State Budget
xii. National Bamboo Mission
xiii. National Afforestation Programme
193. What are the three phases wherein convergence can be operationalised?
A. The three phases / stages wherein convergence is operationalised are:
ii. Works execution
iii. Management/institutional arrangements
194. What are the three convergence models at the village, block and district levels which coordinate the process of convergence?
A. At district level, a District Resource Group (DRG) headed by DPC is empowered to coordinate the convergence process for technical specification and standard.
At Block level, a block Resource Group (DRG) headed by Programme Officer is responsible for convergence process.
At village level, a Village Resource Group (VRG) may be constituted comprising the technical assistants appointed under MGNREGA, the work mates, the Gram Rozgar Sahayak and any field level technical staff engaged in implementing the programmes identified for convergence.
195. What are the cost norms to be followed in the convergence project?
A. The unit cost for works/ activity will be as per converging programme cost norms. In respect of MGNREGA it will be as per the Schedule of Rates as prevalent in the State at the relevant time.
196. Who maintains the accounts in Convergence projects?
i. Works for which funds are not pooled, both the schemes will maintain separate accounts for the project and will have separate project IDs.
ii. In respect of the project, in which funds are dovetailed from other schemes to meet the cost of an identifiable part of the project, a complete project proposal including all project activities and budget should be prepared.
iii. For the MGNREGA component of the project, a break-up of wage material component should be provided.
iv. To avoid duplication in reporting, MGNREGA and other schemes should use the same cost sheet and project ID for their project approval and reporting.
ORGANISING THE WORKERS
197. What is the significance of organising workers into Labour Groups?
A. As per Para 28, Schedule I, organising workers into labours groups helps to improve the participation of workers in implementation and ensures provision of entitlements provided under the Act.
197. What is the significance of organising workers into Labour Groups?
A. As per Para 28, Schedule I, organising workers into labours groups helps to improve the participation of workers in implementation and ensures provision of entitlements provided under the Act.
199. What are the objectives of the Labour Groups?
A. The objectives of organising MGNREGS workers are.
i. Raising of demand for work and ensuring that it is provided on time, during the period required. ii. Improve planning for local employment to maximise work from existing sources and then adding on the MGNREGS entitlement of 100 days to fill gaps.
iii. Collectively accessing different work opportunities in and around the village. iv. Improving worksite environment and facilities.
v. Interacting with MGNREGS functionaries and sorting out different issues especially in getting grievances redressed.
vi. Ensuring all the process and providers of MGNREGS adhered to and the entitlements are provided.
vii. Bringing about a culture of mutual help while carrying out different tasks related to their work. viii. Building awareness on different developmental and legal entitlements and developing capacity to access them.
ix. Enabling raising of the collective voice of the poor in various local participatory fora especially the Gram Sabha.
x. Inducing a process of skill development so that over a period of time the workers can move out of manual labour into semi-skilled and skilled work.
xi. Developing social capital and the capacity for local public action.
xii. Strengthening in Social Audit.
200. What type of organisation of Labour groups is suggested?
A. A federated organisation is suggested with a Neighbourhood Group based on affinity consisting of 15 to 30 families as the basic unit. The Neighbourhood Groups may be federated into a registered labour society at the Village Panchayat level or even for a group of Village Panchayats depending on the size. Also on the basis of number of workers there could be an intermediate level of organisation.
201. How the labour groups will be facilitated?
A. At each level there could be volunteers to look after tasks like labour budget planning, identification of non-MGNREGS works, identification and accessing of developmental entitlements, identification and accessing of non-developmental entitlements, organisational and financial matters etc. The MGNREGS staff would facilitate the formations and functioning of the groups with Programme Officers being the nodal persons. A capacity building programme needs to be designed for the Labour Groups.
202. What are the functions of labour groups?
i. Ensure the entitlements of MGNREGA accessed in letter and spirit.
ii. Ensure the quality of work at the desired level.
iii. Motivate every worker to put in his/her best effort.
iv. Guard against malpractices and bring to the notice of authorities if any.
v. Collectively take up grievances.
203. What are the Rights of the labour groups?
A. Labour groups shall have the following rights.
i. Get the details of work and measurements in a language understood by them.
ii. Verify all records related to MGNREGS
iii. Take up individual and collective grievances
iv. Seek and obtain written information on matters related to MGNREGS and also written response to doubts related to the scheme.
v. Trained regularly not only on the implementation of MGNREGS but also to acquire skills.
vi. Collect membership fee not exceeding `100 per year.
204. What are the obligations of the labour groups?
i. Act democratically and inclusively without any discrimination in terms of caste, religion, gender, class etc.
ii. Meeting frequently but at least once a month
iii. Maintain accounts in the manner prescribed.
iv. Keep records as prescribed v. Function transparently
vi. Ensure cooperation among members and to sort out conflicts
PARTNERSHIP WITH CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS
205. In what way can CSOs can be engaged in MGNREGS?
i) In the operationalisation of Cluster Facilitation Teams (CFTs) in blocks where CFTs project has been undertaken with the convergence of MGNREGA with NRLM.
ii) Organise the workers into formal groups/labour collectives to improve their participation in implementation and to ensure provision of entitlements provided under the Act.
iii) In awareness-building, mobilisation, support and strengthening capacities of wage-seekers and creating an interface between implementation structure and wage-seekers so that they are able to secure their rights, demand work and demand payment for work on time.
iv) In training and support for institutions at Central, State, District, Block and Sub-block levels.
v) As implementation support teams for GPs at cluster level, especially to provide technical support. vi) In transparency process relating to vigilance and social audit.
vii) In monitoring and evaluation, taking up action-research to develop new models.
206. What are the roles of CSO identified as Resource Agency?
A. CSOs identified as resource agencies at the National and State levels will be as follows:
i) Support in framing and reviewing MGNREGA guidelines.
ii) Assessment of Needs for Human Resources and Review.
iii) Provide support teams at the State, District and Block level for different aspects of programme implementation.
iv) Capacity Building Plan:
a. Identification of Training Institutions and Resource Persons
b. Number of training programmes for different levels
c. Content and duration of training
d. Sourcing and Production of Training Material
e. Certification Systems
v) Developing of Monitoring and Evaluation Systems:
a. Identifying indicators and parameters on which the programme will be monitored across different levels of implementation.
b. Identifying the management systems that are required to respond to this monitoring.
c. Identifying IT needs to make this monitoring possible.
207. What are the selection criteria for CSOs to become part of Resource Agency Pool at the National and State level?
i. Impeccable track record and integrity
ii. A minimum of 10 years of community based work focusing on entitlements, grassroots mobilisation, technical support and facilitation, preferably with experience of work on any aspect of MGNREGA
iii. Proven track record of building partnerships with government and other non-State stakeholders. iv. Organisations of eminence should be invited to join the National level Resource Agency. A high level search committee should be appointed to nominate members to this resource pool.
208. What are the roles and responsibilities of CSO identified as Training and support organisation?
i) Impart training to district level training units.
ii) Provide backs topping support to district level teams and implementation partners.
i) Organise exposure for district, block and cluster level implementing partners, village communities, PRIs, wage seeker associations etc.
ii) Develop location-specific training material for MGNREGA.
iii) Customise training content and framework to State’s needs
iv) Provide feedback to State and national level resource agencies on required changes in training content, training material and training strategy.
209. What are the Selection Criteria for CSOs to become Training and Support Organisation?
i. A minimum of 10 years of community based work focusing on entitlements, grassroots mobilisation, technical support and facilitation, preferably with experience of work on any aspect of MGNREGA.
ii. Impeccable quality of field work.
iii. Proven track record of creating training material.
iv. Presence of trainers in team with required communication skills.
v. Minimum training infrastructure (hostel, lecture halls, mess, kitchen, audio visual equipment and living laboratories for learning for MGNREGA related interventions).
vi. Experience of partnership in training or support provided to State Governments in MGNREGA, or other entitlements based interventions.
vii. Sound quality financial and management systems.
210. What are the roles and responsibilities of CSO identified as Implementation Facilitation and Support Team?
i) Developing a thorough understanding of the baseline situation with respect to MGNREGA implementation, wage payments to workers, asset creation, worksite facilities, work demand, workers’ perceptions and so on
ii) Capacity building and exposure of local stakeholders and officials, PRI leadership, village communities, barefoot mobilisers and engineers
iii) Supporting PRIs and Gram Sabhas in developing plans and shelf of works
iv) Testing out innovative ideas that are potentially scalable and will have an impact on the policies and processes of MGNREGA.
211. What are the selection criteria for CSOs to become Planning and Implementation Facilitation and Support Organisation?
i) The CSO should have sound financial and organisational systems in place for discharging responsibilities under the project.
ii) Organisations with an established track-record and demonstrated experience of about 3 to 5 years in working on participatory planning approaches on a watershed/NRM basis.
iii) The partner CSO should have presence in the State/district to work in the selected area/ location, adequate and qualified human resources.
iv) The partner CSO must also enjoy the confidence of the GPs in their area. This may be reflected in a resolution of the GPs (which they intend to work with under this scheme).
212. What are the roles and responsibilities of CSO expected in Mobilisation, Vigilance, Monitoring and Social Audit facilitation?
A. CSOs, if involved in mobilising, vigilance, monitoring and social audit facilitation, the following are the objectives of such agencies:
i) Generating awareness among the people about the Act, Guidelines, and process of implementation ii) Capacity building of village communities and PRIs on their entitlements.
iii) Documentation of status of implementation of the schemes per training to MGNREGA.
iv) Strengthening people’s organisations to facilitate people’s rights.
v) Ensuring transparency through participatory monitoring and social audits.
213. What are the Selection Criteria for CSOs to become Mobilisation, Vigilance, Monitoring and Social Audit Facilitating Organisations?
i) CSO should have sound financial and organisational systems in place for discharging their responsibilities.
ii) CSOs must have an established track record and demonstrated experience and capacity of mobilising the people.
iii) CSOs must have formed and facilitated active SHGs, UGs, SIGs, Federations of women/ workers’ farmers, etc.
iv) The partner CSOs must have presence in the State/district to work in the selected area/ location and have qualified human resources.
214. What are the roles of local Community Based Organisations?
A. Community Based Organisations (CBO) involved in grassroots work such as SHGs, watershed committees, water user groups and the like may be actively involved in different processes related to MGNREGS. Some of the activities for which CBOs may be engaged are listed below:
- Creating awareness about the programme and mobilising needy workers to raise demand for work.
- Supporting PRIs in micro level planning and convergence with other schemes/programme.
- Helping to identify mates for organising works under the programme.
- Providing support services like lending implements and setting up the on-site facilities as envisaged in the Act.
- Providing suitable volunteers to be trained as barefoot engineers or barefoot auditors. Providing skilled labour or persons who could be trained as skilled workers.
- Facilitating Social Audit especially by providing volunteers.
- Community-based monitoring of the programme.
- Coordinating registering of grievances and follow-up their redressal as a people’s collective.
215. What are the activities suggested to strengthen the Panchayats?
- States to issue detailed guidelines in the form of a Hand Book to enable Panchayats at different levels to perform the roles and responsibilities.
- Cluster Facilitation Teams and Voluntary Technical Corps should be provided for groups of Village Panchayats.
- To provide additional support, Community Resource Persons, both on the technical as well as on the accounting and audit side may be attached to Village Panchayats. They may be drawn from the SHGs and suitably trained and assigned necessary powers and responsibilities.
- The 6 per cent provision for administrative cost should be apportioned to the Panchayats also according to the need to meet additional expenditure on staffing, procuring stationery and so on.
- The State should work out a formal partnership between the Village Panchayats and the network of SHGs.
- The Labour Groups formed under MGNREGS should work in association with the Village Panchayats and Intermediate Panchayats.
- The process of decentralised planning should be integrated with the preparation of the Labour Budget to ensure local priorities taken into account even while generating employment for the workers.
- To harmonise the processes and procedures of MGNREGS with those prescribed under the State Panchayati Raj Acts a detailed operating systems may be laid down
- Progress of MGNREGS should be reviewed once in a month by each level of Panchayat.
- A Help Desk may be set up in SIRDs with helplines to provide facility to Panchayats to get information on different aspects of the Scheme and to clarify doubts.
- A formal grievance redressal system may be put in place at the district level for the Panchayats.
- Monthly meetings of Village Panchayats may be organised at the level of the Programme Officer and of the Intermediate and District Panchayats at the level of the DPC to review progress and sort out problems.
- Social-audit like sessions may be organised by the Programme Officer once a year to all the elected representatives of Village Panchayats and Intermediate Panchayats. These sessions would conduct detailed assessment of the performance of the roles and responsibilities of the Programme Officer and DPC, respectively following broadly the methodology of Social Audit of the scheme.
- SIRDs may prepare a Training Plan to cover all elected representatives and heads of the three-tier Panchayats.
- It is necessary that each State may develop comprehensive action plan for strengthening Panchayats using MGNREGS and publish it.