BUR contains national GHG inventory of India for the year 2010, prepared in accordance with the guidelines of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory covers six greenhouse gases, viz. Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) and five categories, namely- energy, industrial processes and product use (IPPU), agriculture, waste and Land-use, Land-use, Change and Forestry (LULUCF).
As per BUR, India emitted 2,136.84 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases in 2010. Energy sector was the prime contributor to emissions and with 71% of total emissions in 2010. Energy sector includes – electricity production, fuel combustion in industries, transport and fugitive emissions. Industrial processes and product use contributed 8%; agriculture and waste sectors contributed 18% and 3% respectively to the national GHG inventory. About 12% of emissions were offset by carbon sink action of forests and croplands, considering which the national GHG emissions are arrived at a total of 1,884.31 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent.
India’s per capita GHG emission in 2010 was 1.56 tCO2 equivalent, which is less than one- third of the world’s per capita emissions and far below than many developed and developing countries. A reduction of emission intensity of GDP by about 12% between 2005 and 2010 has been achieved against our voluntary pledge to reduce the emission intensity of its GDP by 20–25 per cent by 2020, compared with the 2005 level.
BUR showcases a range of climate-friendly measures initiated through eight National Missions under National Action Plan on Climate Change and other programs such as Integrated Power Development Scheme, Renewable Purchase Obligations, enhancement of cess on coal, Perform Achieve and Trade Scheme and National Program for LED based lighting. At the national level, 137 and at state level 286 policies and measures relevant to climate change have been mapped in the report on non-exhaustive basis.
BUR has different sections elaborating various aspects on climate change in the country, such as institutional arrangements to implement the reporting process, national circumstances in which country is responding to climate change, national greenhouse gas inventory for 2010; initiatives of the government to tackle the problem of climate change along with domestic arrangements to measure, report and verify these programs. A section on finance, technology and capacity-building needs and support received has also been provided.
BUR has been prepared by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change under its NATCOM project funded by Global Environment Facility (GEF) through UNDP. Several studies were carried out by 17 national-level institutions, including CSIR laboratories (CIMFR, CRRI, IIP, NEERI and NPL), ICAR institutes (CRIDA, IARI, NDRI), organizations of the MoEFCC (FSI and ICFRE), premier educational institutions (IIM Ahmedabad and IISc), Non-governmental research organizations (TERI and IRADe) and other institutions (CII, EESL and NRSC) involving more than 60 researchers along with inputs from various Ministries, Government departments and independent experts. BUR has also undergone multitier review process and has been approved by the Union Cabinet.
As per the rules of UNFCCC, BURs are subjected to an international process known as International Consultation and Analysis (ICA). It is a process that includes international scrutiny of BUR in a manner that is non-intrusive, non-punitive and respectful of national sovereignty. All BURs are subjected to ICA process. As on 13 January 2016, 23 countries other than India, including Brazil, South Africa, South Korea have submitted their BURs. China, world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases is yet to submit its BUR. Brazil has submitted its BUR, but has given only provisional inventory. Developed countries are required to submit a report known as the Biennial Report (BR), which is to be submitted every alternate year and is subjected to International Analysis and Review (IAR). Paris Agreement calls for developing country Parties to submit their first biennial update reports as soon as possible. India has submitted its first BUR.
India had submitted its first national communication in 2004 and second national communication in 2012. The UNFCCC in its sixteenth session of conference of Parties (COP) had decided that the developing countries will submit updates to their national communication on biennial basis in the form of ‘Biennial Update Report’. The scope of a BUR is to provide an update to the latest National Communication submitted by the country to the UNFCCC. Accordingly, India’s first BUR is an update to the Second National Communication.