A. Income Computation and Disclosure Standard I relating to accounting policies
This Income Computation and Disclosure Standard is applicable for computation of income chargeable under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession” or “Income from other sources” and not for the purpose of maintenance of books of accounts.
In the case of conflict between the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 (‘the Act’) and this Income Computation and Disclosure Standard, the provisions of the Act shall prevail to that extent.
1. This Income Computation and Disclosure Standard deals with significant accounting policies.
Fundamental Accounting Assumptions
2. The following are fundamental accounting assumptions, namely:-
(a) Going Concern
“Going concern” refers to the assumption that the person has neither the intention nor the necessity of liquidation or of curtailing materially the scale of the business, profession or vocation and intends to continue his business, profession or vocation for the foreseeable future.
“Consistency” refers to the assumption that accounting policies are consistent from one period to another;
“Accrual” refers to the assumption that revenues and costs are accrued, that is, recognised as they are earned or incurred (and not as money is received or paid) and recorded in the previous year to which they relate.
3. The accounting policies refer to the specific accounting principles and the methods of applying those principles adopted by a person.
Considerations in the Selection and Change of Accounting Policies
4. Accounting policies adopted by a person shall be such so as to represent a true and fair view of the state of affairs and income of the business, profession or vocation. For this purpose,
(i) the treatment and presentation of transactions and events shall be governed by their substance and not merely by the legal form; and
(ii) marked to market loss or an expected loss shall not be recognised unless the recognition of such loss is in accordance with the provisions of any other Income Computation and Disclosure Standard.
5. An accounting policy shall not be changed without reasonable cause.
Disclosure of Accounting Policies
6. All significant accounting policies adopted by a person shall be disclosed.
7. Any change in an accounting policy which has a material effect shall be disclosed. The amount by which any item is affected by such change shall also be disclosed to the extent ascertainable. Where such amount is not ascertainable, wholly or in part, the fact shall be indicated. If a change is made in the accounting policies which has no material effect for the current previous year but which is reasonably expected to have a material effect in later previous years, the fact of such change shall be appropriately disclosed in the previous year in which the change is adopted and also in the previous year in which such change has material effect for the first time.
8. Disclosure of accounting policies or of changes therein cannot remedy a wrong or inappropriate treatment of the item.
9. If the fundamental accounting assumptions of Going Concern, Consistency and Accrual are followed, specific disclosure is not required. If a fundamental accounting assumption is not followed, the fact shall be disclosed.
10. All contract or transaction existing on the 1st day of April, 2016 or entered into on or after the 1st day of April, 2016 shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of this standard after taking into account the income, expense or loss, if any, recognised in respect of the said contract or transaction for the previous year ending on or before the 31st March,2016.